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Table 4 Odds of being smoker (significant results bolded) estimated from multilevel models

From: What explains between-school differences in rates of smoking?

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
  Odds (95% CI) Odds (95% CI) Odds (95% CI) Odds (95% CI) Odds (95% CI) Odds (95% CI)
Male vs1 female 0.53(0.43,0.59) 0.53(0.44,0.58) 0.51(0.42,0.57) 0.51(0.42,0.57) 0.51(0.42,0.56) 0.51(0.42,0.57)
Age at time of interview 1.00(0.9,1.1) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Cohort2 vs cohort 1 0.95(0.79,1.01) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Leavers vs non leavers 1.93(1.65,2.08) 1.87(1.6,2.02) 1.64(1.41,1.78) 1.67(143,1.81) 1.65(1.41,1.78) 1.67(1.43,1.81)
Lives with mother only vs both parents 1.49(1.24,1.64) 1.49(1.24,1.63) 1.42(1.18,1.56) 1.43(1.19,1.57) 1.42(1.19,1.56) 1.44(1.20,1.58)
Father only vs both parents 1.72(1.24,2.04) 1.63(1.18,1.92) 1.60(1.16,1.90) 1.61(1.16,1.90) 1.62(1.17,1.92) 1.63(1.18,1.93)
Neither parent vs both parents 1.9(1.17,2.42) 1.92(1.15,2.50) 1.72(1.02,2.24) 1.75(1.03,2.28) 1.72(1.02,2.24) 1.75(1.04,2.28)
Male*mother only vs female*not mother only 0.73(0.55,0.84) 0.73(0.55,0.85) 0.76(0.57,0.88) 0.76(0.57,0.88) 0.76(0.57,0.88) 0.76(0.57,0.88)
Council/Local Authority housing2 vs privately owned housing 1.01(0.86,1.1) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Low parental monitoring vs high parental monitoring 1.46(1.26,1.57) 1.40(1.21,1.51) 1.20(1.03,1.3) 1.20(1.03,1.29) 1.19(1.03,1.29) 1.20(1.03,1.30)
Father non-manual vs manual worker 0.99(0.86,1.07) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
High vs low spending money 1.29(1.14,1.37) 1.27(1.13,1.36) 1.20(1.10,1.31) 1.24(1.09,1.33) 1.23(1.08,1.31) 1.25(1.10,1.33)
Indian subcontinent vs white 0.50(0.29,0.67) 0.54(0.31,0.71) 0.48(0.28,0.64) 0.48(0.28,0.63) 0.48(0.28,0.64) 0.49(0.28,0.66)
Other ethnic group vs white 0.85(0.56,1.05) 0.89(0.58,1.10) 0.87(0.57,1.08) 0.88(0.57,0.09) 0.87(0.57,1.09) 0.90(0.58,1.12)
young mother < 40 vs older mother 1.09(0.95,1.17) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Religious belief (higher score less religious)   1.17(1.10,1.21) 1.11(1.04,1.14) 1.11(1.04,1.15) 1.11(1.04,1.14) 1.11(1.04,1.14)
Self-esteem (higher score lower self-esteem)   1.17(1.08,1.22) 1.11(1.02,1.16) 1.11(1.02,1.16) 1.11(1.02,1.16) 1.11(1.02,1.16)
Attitude to school (higher score poorer attitudes)    1.45(1.34,1.51) 1.46(1.35,1.52) 1.46(1.35,1.52) 1.45(1.35,1.51)
Teacher-pupil relationships (higher score poorer relationships)    1.13(1.04,1.17) 1.12(1.04,1.17) 1.13(1.04,1.17) 1.13(1.04,1.17)
School level affluence (higher score means higher affluence)     1.15(1.04,1.21) N/A 1.27(1.17,1.32)
School level poor relationships (higher score means poorer relationships)      0.94(0.84,1.01) 0.95(0.85,1.01)
Interaction between school level affluence and relationships       1.16(1.05,1.22)
  1. 1'vs' stands for 'versus the reference category'. Thus for males vs females the odds presented are for males in reference to/compared with females.
  2. 2 Council/Local Authority housing is housing rented at an accessible cost from the local government body – normally allocation prioritised based on social need).