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Table 2 Selected characteristics of the sample by gender and country

From: Factors associated with self-rated health status in university students: a cross-sectional study in three European countries

  Whole Sample Gendera Country  
Variable   Female Male p-value* Germany Poland Bulgaria p-value*
  N = 2103 N = 1331 n = 712   n = 803 n = 591 n = 709  
Female [%] 65.1     57.7 71.3 68.3 < 0.001
Age [Mean (SD)] in years 20.7 (3.1) 20.6 (2.9) 21.1 (3.3) < 0.001 22.1 (3.2) 20.2 (3.2) 19.7 (2.0) < 0.001
Having a boy-/girlfriend [%] 45.4 49.1 38.3 < 0.001 55.6 35.5 42.3 < 0.001
Living with parents during semester [%] 36.0 31.7 44.0 < 0.001 35.6 29.8 41.2 < 0.001
Maternal higher education (high school or better) [%] 37.6 36.6 39.4 NS 24.1 26.0 61.8 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) [%]     < 0.001     < 0.001
   < 20 32.9 43.6 13.0   20.4 34.6 44.5  
   20 to < 25 55.5 48.8 68.0   61.8 56.2 48.6  
   ≥ 25 11.6 7.6 19.0   17.7 9.2 6.9  
Smoking status [%]     NS     < 0.001
   Daily 19.3 19.7 18.9   22.3 10.4 23.3  
   Occasionally 15.3 15.4 15.3   15.4 13.6 16.6  
   Non-smoker 65.3 64.9 65.8   62.3 76.0 60.1  
  1. a: information about gender was missing for 60 (3%) participants; NS= not significant;
  2. *: Pearson's chi-square or Mann-Whitney-U tests for comparison between genders; and for comparison between countries