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Table 3 Association between socio-economic characteristics and insufficient physical activity by gender in adults aged 25–64 years in HCMCa

From: The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City

  Male (n = 821) Adjusted OR (95%CI) Female (n = 955) Adjusted OR (95%CI) Both (n = 1776)** Adjusted OR (95%CI)
Gender    
   Men - - ref.
   Women - - 0.79 (0.54–1.17)
Age groups c    
   25–34 ref. ref. ref.
   35–44 1.31 (0.82–2.11) 0.77 (0.47–1.26) 0.98 (0.71–1.34)
   45–54 1.21 (0.73–2.03) 0.64 (0.41–1.00) 0.86 (0.66–1.11)
   55–64 0.98 (0.56–1.69) 0.64 (0.33–1.23) 0.74 (0.52–1.06)
Area*    
   Wealthy urban ref. ref. ref.
   Less wealthy urban 1.24 (0.90–1.71) 1.20 (0.79–1.82) 1.23 (0.90–1.68)
   Suburban 1.09 (0.60–1.98) 1.20 (0.81–1.77) 1.16 (0.76–1.77)
Ethnic    
   Kinh ref. ref. ref.
   Others 1.27 (0.27–5.99) 1.80 (0.58–5.63) 1.62 (0.90–2.95)
Education c    
   Less than primary school ref. ref. ref.
   Primary school completed 0.86 (0.38–1.94) 0.83 (0.45–1.52) 0.88 (0.56–1.37)
   Secondary school completed 0.83 (0.36–1.92) 0.91 (0.45–1.85) 0.93 (0.55–1.56)
   High school completed 0.95 (0.51–1.78) 1.08 (0.58–2.02) 1.09 (0.68–1.75)
   Some colleges 1.1 (0.46–2.62) 1.46 (0.49–4.30) 1.32 (0.63–2.76)
Occupation c    
   Government employee ref. ref. ref.
   Non-Government employee 0.96 (0.42–2.19) 1.86 (1.0–3.45) 1.24 (0.77–2.0)
   Self-employee 1.40 (0.58–3.36) 1.11 (0.63–1.97) 1.27 (0.82–1.96)
   Housewife - 0.69 (0.41–1.17) 0.65 (0.36–1.17)
   Others (unpaid, student, unemployed, retired) 1.05 (0.49–2.23) 0.69 (0.24–1.98) 0.97 (0.57–1.64)
Household economic status c    
Income/month   
   < 1,000,000 ref. ref. ref.
   1,000,000 -< 3,000,000 1.57 (0.94–2.62) 1.44 (0.88–2.35) 1.42 (1.02–2.00) b
   3,000,000 -< 5,000,000 1.98 (1.04–3.74) b 1.30 (0.56–3.0) 1.51 (0.94–2.43)
   ≥ 5,000,000 2.0 (.96–4.16) 1.71 (0.85–3.45) 1.77 (1.05–2.97) b
Household wealth index c    
   Lowest ref. ref. ref.
   Second 1.32 (0.65–2.67) 1.23 (0.75–2.01) 1.29 (0.9–1.84)
   Middle 1.82 (1.03–3.2) b 1.44 (0.76–2.72) 1.67 (1.26–2.21) b
   Fourth 1.68 (0.78–3.66) 1.92 (0.96–3.86) 1.87 (1.15–3.04) b
   Highest 2.0 (1.23–3.25) b 1.66 (0.72–3.82) 1.86 (1.29–2.66) b
Tobacco use d    
   Non-smoker ref. ref. ref.
   Ex-smoker 0.57 (0.36–0.90) b 0.42 (0.03–6.86) 0.58 (0.37–0.91) b
   Current smoker 0.75 (0.52–1.08) 0.39 (0.05–3.06) 0.76 (0.54–1.05)
Alcohol consumption d    
   Non-binge drinking ref. ref. ref.
   Binge drinking‡ 1.05 (0.69–1.62) 0.73 (0.21–2.5) 1.02 (0.71–1.47)
  1. a OR adjusted for all variables in the table 3; b p < 0.05 (Wald test); c p < 0.001 (test for trend); d p < 0.05 (test for trend)
  2. * Classification based on the HCMC Bureau of Statistics, 2002; ** Missing data due to refusal;
  3. † General income of household in millions VND; ‡ 5 standard drinks or more for men and 4 standard drinks or more for women