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Table 2 Relationship between early substance use and early sexual behaviour stratified by gender and European city

From: Sexual uses of alcohol and drugs and the associated health risks: A cross sectional study of young people in nine European cities

  Percentage having had sex under 16 years of age
  Gender City (Country)
Used under 16 All Male Female Pa Lisbon Portugal Palma Spain Venice Italy Athens Greece Ljubljana Slovenia Prague Czech Republic Vienna Austria Berlin Germany Liverpool UK Pa
Alcohol               
   No 14.0 22.6 7.1 *** 9.5 12.7 29.4 13.3 15.2 10.3 13.0 22.2 0.0 0.117
   Yes 36.2 42.0 30.5 *** 30.9 37.0 36.6 33.8 27.5 41.5 49.6 35.6 30.0 *
   P *** *** ***   ** *** ns ** ns ** *** ns **  
Cannabis               
   No 19.3 27.3 12.4 *** 19.5 19.0 21.7 16.1 17.8 22.5 27.5 18.8 11.5 0.321
   Yes 50.0 52.3 47.4 ns 54.5 40.5 45.8 70.6 46.9 47.4 70.6 47.3 43.5 ns
   P *** *** ***   *** ** ** *** ** ** *** ** ***  
Cocaine               
   No 28.0 34.6 21.9 *** 24.5 22.7 29.4 21.1 23.7 34.2 39.6 32.3 25.0 <0.005
   Yes 69.0 75.0 61.1 ns - 66.7 77.8 100.0 75.0 100.0 100.0 80.0 30.0 ns
   P *** *** ***   na * ** ns * ns ** * ns  
Ecstasy               
   No 27.2 34.2 20.8 *** 23.2 23.6 28.6 21.1 21.6 32.4 39.4 32.3 22.9 <0.005
   Yes 77.8 80.8 75.0 ns 75.0 50.0 87.5 - 87.5 77.8 100.0 80.0 63.6 ns
   P *** *** ***   * Ns ** na *** * ** * **  
  1. * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001; ns = not significant (two-tailed tests)
  2. aP values compare frequencies within 'substances used under 16' no or yes categories across genders or between countries.
  3. na = not applicable; applied when at least one cross-tabulation category is empty.