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Table 2 Median diagnostic delay for pulmonary TB patients in 58 studies

From: A systematic review of delay in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis

Country Year First author DD Pat DD HCP DD total Ref no.
Tanzania 2000 Wandwalo 15 120 136 [29]
United Kingdom 2003 Lewis 63 35 126 [7]
Burkina Faso 2006 Ouedraogo * * 120 [49]
Ethiopia 1999 Madebo * * 120 [5]
Ghana 1998 Lawn 28 56 120 [11]
Malawi 1988 Nkhoma * * 120 [54]
Thailand 1991 Tesana * * 120 [55]
Thailand 1993 Pungrassami * * 120 [45]
Romania 1989 Anastasatu 69♠ 34♠ 107♠ [33]
Iran 2002 Masjedi 13♠   93♠ [51]
Vietnam 1999 Long 54♠ 29♠ 93♠ [30]
Pakistan 2006 WHO 9 87 91 [27]
Malaysia 1994 Hooi 15 35 90 [21]
United States 2005 Golub 32 26 89 [22]
Iran 2006 WHO 24 42 88 [27]
Malaysia 1997 Liam 14 49 88 [36]
Botswana 1998 Steen 21 35 84 [26]
New Zealand 2000 Calder 7 49 84 [44]
Uganda 2005 Kiwuwa 14 63 84 [23]
Spain 2003 Altet Gomez 43♠ 39♠ 82♠ [24]
Ethiopia 2005 Yimer 15 61 80 [6]
Nepal 2001 Yamasaki-Nakagawa 23 29 79 [14]
Japan 1990 Niijima * * 78† [46]
Mongolia 1996 Enkhbat 29 35 78 [35]
Nigeria 2004 Odusanya 56 7 70 [19]
South Africa 2001 Pronyk 28 7 70 [8]
Australia 2001 Ward 30 11 66 [20]
Thailand 2006 Rojpibulstit 31 20 66 [9]
China 2004 Bai 30 24 65 [28]
Italy 2006 Gagliotti 7 36 65 [38]
Spain 1996 Franco 23 32 64 [12]
Turkey 2004 Güneylioglu 18♠ 13♠ 64♠ [16]
Ethiopia 2002 Demissie 60 6 64 [18]
Norway 2006 Farah 28 33 63 [17]
United States 1998 Asch    60▲ [42]
India 2002 Rajeswari 20 23 60 [25]
Korea 1992 Mori 54♠ 14♠ 60♠ [31]
Peru 1996 Chavez * * 60 [53]
The Gambia 2001 Lienhardt * * 60 [32]
Zambia 2001 Needham * * 60 [10]
Cambodia 2006 Saly * 10 58 [50]
Somalia 2006 WHO 53 7 58 [27]
Malawi 2000 Salaniponi * * 56 [47]
Syria 2006 WHO 31 15 55 [27]
China 2005 Xu 10 39 50 [37]
Turkey 2006 Okur 30 19 49 [34]
United Kingdom 2007 Rodger * * 49 [40]
Australia 1996 Pirkis * * 44 [15]
Taiwan 2005 Chiang 7 23 44 [56]
Egypt 2004 WHO 12 18 42 [27]
Japan 2002 Sasaki 21 7 42 [52]
Iraq 2004 WHO 31 2 36 [27]
United States 1999 Sherman 21 6 35 [39]
Yemen 2004 WHO 28 4 35 [27]
China 2006 Deng 19 5 31 [41]
France 1996 Gulbaran    30♠ [48]
Thailand 2001 Ngamvithayapong 11 8 * [13]
Pakistan 2001 Sadiq    21€ [57]
  1. The studies are listed in descending order of the median diagnostic delay.
  2. DD Pat (Diagnostic Delay by the Patients): Time from debut of symptoms to first visit to health care provider
  3. DD HCP (Diagnostic Delay by the Health Care Providers): Time from first visit to a HCP to the making of a proper diagnosis
  4. DD Total (Total Diagnostic Delay): Time from debut of symptoms to the making of a proper diagnosis
  5. * Data not obtainable
  6. † Average calculated by the reviewers from separate numbers for female and male
  7. ♠ Mean
  8. ▲ 80% percentile
  9. € 77% percentile