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Table 2 Barriers and solutions to improve journalist and public information officers (PIO) communication in health-related emergencies

From: Effective media communication of disasters: Pressing problems and recommendations

Barrier Solution
1. Media stories are too often hectic and do not provide much contextual information 1. Develop case-based learning opportunities to illustrate best practices
2. Media stories fail to reflect the complexities of health-related emergencies 2. Invite journalist to participate in emergency and disaster drills and exercises
3. Media personnel lack access to information and experts 3. Facilitate contact and relationship-building between journalists and PIO's at the local level
4. Lack of training to convey information about likely risks and threats in appropriate manner to the public 4. Provide experiential learning opportunities for both journalist and PIOs
5. Journalist lack of cooperation for information dissemination with colleagues across other media types 5. Use the Internet and other mobile technologies to disseminate information
6. Lack of government agencies and media organizations in promoting and publicizing emergency response plans together 6. Coordinate with public health and other government agencies in developing emergency response plans.
7. Lack of consensus between journalists and PIOs related to resource development, availability, and dissemination for responders 7. Bring together the various entities that are developing resources and publish information through trade publications and professional meetings