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Table 3 Gender-stratified relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes according to marital status.

From: Marital status and mortality among Japanese men and women: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

  Men Women
Marital Status Married Widowed Divorced Single Married Widowed Divorced Single
Ages 40–64 y         
Person-years 277,605 5,030 4,497 5,751 358,675 29,012 8,764 6,949
Cardiovascular Disease 445 18 12 18 223 31 7 12
   RR (95%CI) 1.0 1.46(0.91–2.35) 1.68(0.94–3.00) 3.15(1.90–5.22) 1.0 1.10(0.75–1.61) 0.93(0.43–2.02) 2.25(1.22–4.15)
Cancer 1,025 33 17 14 517 64 13 15
   RR (95%CI) 1.0 1.16(0.82–1.64) 1.20(0.74–1.95) 1.12(0.65–1.93) 1.0 1.09(0.84–1.42) 0.93(0.53–1.62) 1.39(0.82–2.36)
All Causes 2,058 77 54 51 1,019 126 31 45
   RR (95%CI) 1.0 1.40(1.11–1.76) 1.68(1.28–2.21) 1.82(1.36–2.43) 1.0 1.04(0.86–1.25) 1.06(0.73–1.52) 2.02(1.48–2.76)
Ages 65–79 y         
Person-years 70,287 5,787 682 362 77,063 38,189 2,751 1,595
Cardiovascular Disease 713 103 10 7 447 318 15 9
   RR (95%CI) 1.0 1.43(1.16–1.77) 1.30(0.69–2.43) 2.14(1.00–4.56) 1.0 1.03(0.89–1.20) 0.91(0.54-1.53) 0.94(0.48–1.85)
Cancer 878 106 8 3 395 223 17 11
   RR (95%CI) 1.0 1.26(1.03–1.55) 0.79(0.39–1.59) 0.62(0.20–1.95) 1.0 0.92(0.78–1.09) 1.10(0.67-1.80) 1.09(0.59–2.01)
All Causes 2,409 305 34 23 1,238 817 46 32
   RR (95%CI) 1.0 1.27(1.12–1.43) 1.26(0.89–1.77) 1.84(1.21–2.79) 1.0 0.98(0.89–1.08) 0.99(0.73-1.33) 1.05(0.73–1.50)
  1. Adjusted for categories for multivariate adjustment were as follows: age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, education, minutes of walking, hours of doing sports, employment status, stress, having children, history of hypertension, and history of diabetes.