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Table 4 determinants of involvement of pain specialist in hospital by selected characteristics.

From: Inequity in the provision of and access to palliative care for cancer patients. Results from the Italian survey of the dying of cancer (ISDOC)

  1998 Italian cancer deaths 1 Followed in hospital by a specialist in pain
  N. % 3 (95%CI)
AGE AT DEATH (years)    
   18–54 7,599 41.5 (24.9 – 60.3)
   55–64 14,449 29.2 (20.4 – 40.0)
   65–74 29,585 16.0 (11.5 – 22.0)
   75–84 33,982 17.0 (11.4 – 24.2)
   85+ 12,999 11.4 (6.2 – 20.2)
   P < 0.01
GENDER    
   Males 60,469 19.1 (13.9 – 25.6)
   Females 38,144 20.5 (14.6 – 28.0)
   P = 0.74
EDUCATION (years)    
   ≤ 5 65,804 16.7 (12.0 – 22.8)
   6–9 15,114 22.2 (15.3 – 30.9)
   10+ 17,696 28.2 (19.5 – 39.0)
   P = 0.01
MARITAL STATUS    
   Single 2 34,554 20.0 (14.2 – 27.6)
   Married 63,130 18.9 (15.0 – 23.6)
   P = 0.72
PLACE OF RESIDENCE    
   North West 31,869 24.6 (19.8 – 30.1)
   North East 24,208 13.3 (7.9 – 21.6)
   Center 22,716 22.3 (13.3 – 25.0)
   South and islands 19,821 16.3 (6.6 – 34.7)
   P = 0.12
PRIMARY TUMOR    
   Head and neck 1,880 14.8 (5.8 – 32.9)
   Digestive system 40,314 19.8 (14.8 – 25.9)
   Respiratory system 22,144 21.9 (14.2 – 32.2)
   Breast 7,205 13.4 (6.3 – 26.1)
   Genitourinary system 12,311 23.3 (14.2 – 35.8)
   Haematological 7,387 15.7 (5.9 – 35.7)
   Others and unspecified 7,371 16.9 (9.5 – 28.4)
   P = 0.54
MONTHS SINCE DIAGNOSIS    
   1–3 25,833 17.4 (11.9 – 24.8)
   4–6 12,041 19.2 (11.8 – 29.8)
   7–12 16,624 18.8 (10.9 – 30.4)
   13–36 23,213 19.6 (13.4 – 27.8)
   > 36 18,304 24.8 (16.8 – 35.0)
   P = 0.21
ADMISSION'S WARD    
   Surgery 20,547 21.1 (14.9 – 29.0)
   Medicine 55,237 19.1 (14.0 – 25.6)
   Oncology-Hematology 13,815 21.9 (13.5 – 33.5)
   Other 9,014 15.6 (7.9 – 28.7)
   P = 0.81
NUMBER OF COHABITANTS    
   None 7,178 12.8 (6.2 – 24.7)
   1 37,988 18.9 (14.0 – 25.1)
   2 22,412 20.9 (12.5 – 32.8)
   3+ 20,797 18.5 (11.7 – 28.1)
   P = 0.58
CAREGIVER (relationship)    
   Spouse – partner 28,795 19.3 (13.0 – 27.7)
   Child 44,759 17.0 (12.5 – 22.8)
   Others 14,820 23.5 (15.0 – 34.2)
   P = 0.45
CAREGIVER'S AGE    
   18–44 28,797 22.6 (16.9 – 29.4)
   45–54 23,331 20.4 (14.2 – 28.4)
   55–64 20,080 20.5 (12.9 – 31.0)
   65–74 16,040 13.6 (7.3 – 24.1)
   75+ 6,127 19.2 (8.5 – 37.9)
   P = 0.17
CAREGIVER'S GENDER    
   Males 26,679 22.8 (17.4 – 29.2)
   Females 61,695 17.1 (12.5 – 22.9)
   P = 0.13
CAREGIVER'S EDUCATION    
   ≤ 5 23,879 12.3 (7.9 – 18.4)
   6–9 19,490 16.2 (8.7 – 28.4)
   10+ 41,114 24.5 (18.5 – 31.8)
   P < 0.01
TOTAL 98,614 19.6 (15.5 – 24.5)
  1. 1 Subgroup of cancer deaths who spent part of their last three months of life in hospital. The number of cancer deaths have been estimated from the study sample, using 1998 Italian mortality data.
  2. 2 Including widowed, separated and divorced.
  3. 3 All percentages are weighted.