|Exposure scenario||Exposure||Health endpoint||Approximate lifetime increased mortality|
|Living in Central London compared to Inverness.||Mix of air pollutants indicated by average PM2.5 = 6.9 μg m-3 higher.||Mortality||
Postulated 2.8% higher air pollution related mortality in central London compared to Inverness (see text).
|N.B. Extrapolates from data in the US. May be confounding factors which, if accounted for, would change the excess risk. Time-lag between exposure and effect is uncertain.|
|Passive smoking – risk to non-smoker at home if spouse smokes.||Mix of pollutants in secondhand smoke.||Mortality||
1.7% lifetime excess IHD mortality risk from passive smoking: average for men and women .
|N.B. Heart disease risk: does not include strokes or the (significantly lower) risk from lung cancer or other illnesses. May be confounding factors/limitations of meta-analysis data.|
|Chernobyl emergency workers in the 30-km Zone 1986–87.||
Illustrative of mean (100 mSv) and high (250 mSv) doses: 4% of workers received doses >250 mSv.
Predicted 4% risk of fatal cancer for 1000 mSv dose to working age population.
|N.B. Uncertainty in extrapolation from high dose and dose rate Japanese data to these chronic low doses. If the DDREF was not applied, mortality risk would increase by a factor of 2. Time lag between exposure and effect is generally long (> 10 years) for solid cancers, but is shorter (< 15 years) for leukaemia. Note that 134 ARS victims received much higher doses than 250 mSv.|