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Table 3 Multinomial logistic regression comparing cocaine only and both opiate and cocaine overdose compared to opiate only overdose deaths among decedents ages 15–64, New York City, 1990–2000*

From: Cocaine- and opiate-related fatal overdose in New York City, 1990–2000

  Cocaine only overdose deaths vs opiate only overdose deaths Opiate/cocaine overdose deaths vs opiate only overdose deaths
  Adjusted model Adjusted model
Characteristics OR 95 CI p-value OR 95 CI p-value
Sex       
   Female REF --- --- REF --- ---
   Male 0.71 0.62 – 0.82 <0.0001 0.88 0.77 – 1.01 0.0733
Race/ethnicity       
   White REF --- --- REF --- ---
   Black 4.73 4.08 – 5.49 <0.0001 1.94 1.71 – 2.21 <0.0001
   Hispanic 1.51 1.29 – 1.76 <0.0001 1.20 1.06 – 1.36 0.0035
Age       
   15–24 REF --- --- REF --- ---
   25–34 1.74 1.27 – 2.37 0.0005 1.41 1.12 – 1.79 0.0040
   35–44 1.43 1.05 – 1.94 0.0217 1.11 0.88 – 1.39 0.3891
   45–54 1.69 1.23 – 2.32 0.0012 0.88 0.69 – 1.13 0.3318
   55–64 2.53 1.70 – 3.75 <0.0001 0.75 0.52 – 1.08 0.1254
Borough of death       
   Manhattan REF --- --- REF --- ---
   Bronx 0.93 0.79 – 1.10 0.3915 0.87 0.76 – 1.00 0.0551
   Brooklyn 0.80 0.68 – 0.93 0.0033 0.63 0.55 – 0.72 <0.0001
   Queens 0.85 0.71 – 1.03 0.0934 0.70 0.60 – 0.82 <0.0001
   Staten Island 1.01 0.69 – 1.49 0.9575 0.66 0.47 – 0.93 0.0165
Place of OD episode       
   Other inside (not residence) REF --- --- REF --- ---
   Residence 0.92 0.78 – 1.07 0.2830 0.93 0.81 – 1.06 0.2754
   Outside 1.34 1.06 – 1.68 0.0127 1.08 0.88 – 1.32 0.4626
Cannabis detected       
   no REF --- --- REF --- ---
   yes 0.96 0.77 – 1.21 0.7590 1.25 1.04 – 1.50 0.0161
Alcohol detected       
   no REF --- --- REF --- ---
   yes 0.50 0.44 – 0.56 <0.0001 0.89 0.80 – 0.98 0.0221
Year of death       
   1990 REF --- --- REF --- ---
   1991 1.37 1.00 – 1.87 0.0465 1.17 0.88 – 1.55 0.2790
   1992 1.30 0.95 – 1.77 0.0963 1.28 0.97 – 1.68 0.0831
   1993 0.98 0.72 – 1.31 0.8726 1.38 1.06 – 1.78 0.0157
   1994 1.19 0.89 – 1.60 0.2449 1.38 1.06 – 1.79 0.0161
   1995 0.79 0.59 – 1.07 0.1281 1.11 0.86 – 1.44 0.4269
   1996 0.97 0.72 – 1.30 0.8246 0.93 0.71 – 1.21 0.5770
   1997 0.76 0.56 – 1.03 0.0727 0.73 0.56 – 0.95 0.0210
   1998 0.86 0.63 – 1.18 0.3552 1.03 0.78 – 1.35 0.8522
   1999 0.78 0.57 – 1.07 0.1178 0.84 0.64 – 1.11 0.2271
   2000 0.66 0.49 – 0.91 0.0098 0.81 0.62 – 1.06 0.1276
  1. *analysis restricted to decedents with opiates-only, cocaine only, and both opiates and cocaine detected