Skip to main content

Table 2 Model-based* predicted probability estimates (95% confidence intervals) for self-reported health behaviors across levels of educational attainment, income, social class and parental educational attainment. Translating Research Into Action (TRIAD) Study.

From: Educational disparities in health behaviors among patients with diabetes: the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study

Socioeconomic Indicator Smoking (%) Regular exercise (%) Daily foot self-exam (%) Health-seeking behavior (%) Daily SMBG† (%)
Educational attainment      
Less than High School graduate 24.0 (20.8–27.5) 41.9 (37.2–46.7) 70.8 (65.6–75.4) 20.8 (16.9–25.3) 71.6 (62.4–79.3)
High School graduate 17.9 (15.8–20.2) 43.4 (39.2–47.7) 65.7 (61.3–69.9) 23.8 (19.9–28.2) 72.8 (66.3–78.4)
Some college/trade school 17.6 (15.6–19.8) 48.4 (44.1–52.7) 68.7 (64.4–72.6) 30.1 (25.6–35.0) 77.7 (72.2–82.5)
College graduate 10.4 (8.6–12.4) 50.2 (45.6–54.8) 67.3 (61.9–72.3) 33.1 (28.2–38.5) 77.1 (71.0–82.3)
p-value < 0.0001 0.0001 0.3 < 0.0001 0.4
Income      
< $15 K 22.8 (19.6–26.4) 36.0 (31.7–40.6) 68.3 (62.2–73.8) 20.8 (17.1–25.1) 75.1 (66.3–82.2)
$15 K – $40 K 19.3 (17.0–21.7) 44.4 (40.3–48.6) 66.8 (61.3–71.9) 26.0 (22.1–30.4) 74.9 (69.1–79.8)
$40 K – $75 K 15.3 (13.2–17.6) 49.7 (45.4–54.1) 66.7 (60.5–72.3) 27.7 (23.5–32.4) 71.9 (65.5–77.6)
> $75 K 11.4 (9.4–13.8) 56.0 (51.2–60.8) 63.9 (56.5–70.7) 31.4 (26.5–36.7) 79.2 (72.3–84.7)
p-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.7 < 0.0001 0.4
Employment-based social class§      
Worker 17.3 (15.2–19.6) 41.6 (38.1–45.2) 66.6 (62.4–70.6) 23.9 (20.0–28.3) 78.2 (73.1–82.6)
Supervisor 17.5 (14.7–20.6) 46.0 (41.7–50.3) 70.3 (64.8–75.2) 25.3 (20.8–30.3) 72.2 (64.4–78.9)
Manager 17.2 (15.2–19.4) 49.4 (45.9–52.8) 67.7 (63.7–71.4) 29.5 (25.1–34.3) 74.9 (70.1–79.0)
p-value 0.99 < 0.0001 0.5 < 0.0001 0.3
Parental educational attainment      
Less than High School graduate 16.8 (14.7–19.1) 43.9 (39.9–48.0) 68.3 (65.1–71.4) 24.9 (20.0–30.5) 73.9 (67.8–79.2)
High School graduate 16.6 (14.5–19.0) 48.5 (44.2–52.7) 67.0 (63.4–70.5) 27.6 (22.3–33.6) 74.6 (68.8–79.6)
Some college/trade school 18.1 (15.3–21.3) 48.8 (44.0–53.7) 65.4 (60.1–70.4) 29.7 (23.8–36.3) 78.2 (71.0–84.1)
College graduate 16.6 (13.5–20.1) 49.7 (44.5–55.0) 72.3 (65.9–77.9) 31.9 (25.5–39.0) 81.8 (74.1–87.5)
p-value 0.8 0.01 0.4 0.003 0.3
  1. *Each behavior is modeled separately using hierarchical logistic regression models, specifying random intercepts for health plan and adjusting for demographics (sex, age, race or ethnicity), socioeconomic indicators (only the one specified as the table row heading), severity measures (diabetes treatment, comorbidity score, duration of diabetes), comorbidity score, depressive symptoms, and employment status.
  2. †Insulin users only and adjusted for coverage for test strips
  3. §Social class defined by Olin-Wright classification