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Table 1 Subject characteristics, quality of care, provider communications, and out-of-pocket charges for the TRIAD study respondents (n = 8,763)*

From: Educational disparities in health behaviors among patients with diabetes: the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study

Subject characteristics N (%)
Sex Women 4687 (53.5)
  Men 4076 (46.5)
Age 25–44 816 (9.3)
  45–64 4252 (48.6)
  65 or older 3684 (42.1)
Race or Ethnicity Latino 1291 (15.8)
  Black, non-Latino 1260 (15.4)
  White, non-Latino 3594 (44.0)
  Asian/Pacific Islander 1304 (16.0)
  Other 720 (8.8)
Annual Household Income < $15,000 2017 (24.3)
  $15,001 – 40,000 2783 (33.6)
  $40,001 – 75,000 2066 (24.9)
  > $75,000 1424 (17.1)
Education Less than high school graduate 1773 (20.8)
  High school graduate 2530 (29.7)
  Some college 2496 (29.3)
  College graduate 1720 (20.2)
Diabetes treatment Diet and exercise only 604 (7.0)
  Oral agents only 5215 (60.0)
  Insulin alone or in combination 2868 (33.0)
Comorbidity Score** No history of serious events 6017 (73.5)
  History of one or more serious events 2166 (26.5)
Health plan location California 1771 (20.2)
  Hawaii 2023 (23.1)
  Indiana 904 (10.3)
  Michigan 1268 (14.5)
  New Jersey 1259 (14.4)
  Texas 1538 (17.6)
  1. *Complete data only
  2. **Summary score based on whether or not there is a history of myocardial infarct, CABG, PTCA, stroke, or amputation