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Table 2 Ocurrences of pregnancy outcomes (%) in the study groups and relative risks (OR) compared with the reference group

From: Under-attending free antenatal care is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes

Outcome Study groupa % Unadjusted OR 95% CI Adjusted OR* 95% CI
SGA Reference 9.29     
  0 8.15 0.87 0.56–1.34 0.97 0.62–1.52
  1–5 9.66 1.04 0.66–1.66 0.97 0.60–1.55
Preterm delivery Reference 6.51     
(< 37 weeks) 0 25.22 4.84 3.57–6.57 4.60 3.35–6.31
  1–5 39.58 8.51 6.39–11.35 8.58 6.32–11.64
Low birth weight Reference 4.73     
(< 2500 g) 0 21.85 5.63 4.19–7.57 5.46 3.90–7.65
  1–5 33.01 9.86 7.33–13.26 9.18 6.65–12.68
Admission to NICU Reference 7.76     
  0 9.26 1.21 0.80–1.83 1.18 0.75–1.86
  1–5 8.70 1.13 0.70–1.84 1.14 0.69–1.86
Low Apgar score (< 7) 1 min Reference 4.83     
  0 18.89 4.59 3.36–6.26 4.52 3.20–6.38
  1–5 25.60 6.78 4.93–9.31 6.90 4.94–9.64
Low Apgar score (< 7) 5 min Reference 1.82     
  0 11.11 6.74 4.56–9.98 5.98 3.80–9.40
  1–5 14.98 9.50 6.41–14.09 9.70 3.40–14.71
Foetal venous pH < 7.15 at birth Reference 1.22     
  0 3.70 3.12 1.64–5.93 1.13 0.28–4.62
  1–5 1.93 1.60 0.59–4.33 3.71 1.48–9.28
Caesarean section Reference 16.22     
  0 23.33 1.57 1.18–2.09 1.68 1.23–2.29
  1–5 21.26 1.39 1.0–1.95 1.50 1.06–2.12
Fetal death Reference 0.26     
  0 2.59 5.76 2.50–13.27 5.19 2.04–13.22
  1–5 4.83 12.86 6.59–25.07 12.05 5.95–24.4
Neonatal death Reference 0.25     
  0 2.59 10.41 4.71–23.01 8.66 3.59–20.86
  1–5 2.42 9.68 3.85–24.38 10.03 3.85–26.13
  1. Adjusted for: Age under 18 y, Age over 35 y, unmarried status, smoking during pregnancy, using alcohol during pregnancy, educational level, primiparity, multiparity, prolonged gravidity, chronic illness and diabetes
  2. SGA = small for gestational age; NICU = neonatal intensive care unit