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Table 4 Risk factors in relation to the neighbourhood overcrowding (quartiles) in Germany and Czech (odds ratios and 95%CI; multivariate, multi-level regression models)

From: Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

Risk factor (number of observations included) Model 1 adjusted for age, sex Model 2 adjusted for age, sex, education Model 3 adjusted for age, sex, education, economic activity, social isolation
  Country = Czech Republic
Obesity (6082)    
1. no overcrowding 1.00 1.00 1.00
2. 0.84 [0.73–0.96] 0.83 [0.74–0.96] 0.85 [0.75–0.97]
3. 1.00 [0.86–1.16] 1.02 [0.88–1.16] 1.03 [0.90–1.19]
4. overcrowding 1.02 [0.85–1.22] 0.97 [0.81–1.13] 0.95 [0.80–1.12]
Hypertension (7316)    
1. no overcrowding 1.00 1.00 1.00
2. 1.10 [0.97–1.25] 1.11 [0.97–1.25] 1.09 [0.96–1.24]
3. 1.10 [0.95–1.26] 1.11 [0.96–1.27] 1.10 [0.96–1.27]
4. overcrowding 1.06 [0.89–1.25] 1.06 [0.89–1.26] 1.04 [0.88–1.24]
Smoking (7235)    
1. no overcrowding 1.00 1.00 1.00
2. 1.14 [0.97–1.33] 1.15 [0.99–1.34] 1.16 [0.99–1.35]
3. 1.18 [1.00–1.40] 1.20 [1.02–1.42] 1.19 [1.01–1.41]
4. overcrowding 1.33 [1.10–1.61] 1.28 [1.06–1.54] 1.28 [1.06–1.55]
Low phys. activity (7078)    
1. no overcrowding 1.00 1.00 1.00
2. 0.83 [0.71–0.98] 0.84 [0.72–0.97] 0.84 [0.71–0.98]
3. 0.90 [0.75–1.07] 0.90 [0.77–1.07] 0.91 [0.77–1.08]
4. overcrowding 1.01 [0.83–1.23] 0.94 [0.78–1.13] 0.93 [0.78–1.12]
  Country = Germany
Obesity (3967)    
1. no overcrowding 1.00 1.00 1.00
2. 1.20 [1.01–1.42] 1.16 [0.98–1.37] 1.16 [0.98–1.36]
3. 1.47 [1.24–1.74] 1.40 [1.18–1.66] 1.40 [1.18–1.66]
4. overcrowding 1.43 [1.17–1.75] 1.32 [1.08–1.62] 1.33 [1.08–1.63]
Hypertension (3986)    
1. no overcrowding 1.00 1.00 1.00
2. 1.09 [0.94–1.26] 1.08 [0.93–1.25] 1.06 [0.91–1.23]
3. 1.12 [0.96–1.31] 1.10 [0.94–1.29] 1.09 [0.93–1.27]
4. overcrowding 1.11 [0.92–1.32] 1.07 [0.89–1.29] 1.06 [0.88–1.27]
Smoking (3986)    
1. no overcrowding 1.00 1.00 1.00
2. 1.32 [1.10–1.58] 1.28 [1.08–1.52] 1.28 [1.08–1.52]
3. 1.43 [1.18–1.72] 1.34 [1.12–1.60] 1.32 [1.10–1.57]
4. overcrowding 1.50 [1.19–1.88] 1.37 [1.09–1.71] 1.36 [1.09–1.69]
Low phys. activity (3981)    
1. no overcrowding 1.00 1.00 1.00
2. 1.18 [0.98–1.42] 1.12 [0.93–1.34] 1.13 [0.94–1.33]
3. 1.36 [1.12–1.66] 1.22 [1.01–1.47] 1.20 [0.99–1.45]
4. overcrowding 1.38 [1.12–1.73] 1.18 [0.95–1.46] 1.18 [0.95–1.47]