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Table 3 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) according to weekly hours of physical activity. SDQ (mean scores) at age 18–19 years according to hours of physical activity per week at age 15–16 years, in boys and girls – unadjusted (crude) and adjusted for confounders and mental health at baseline.

From: The association between weekly hours of physical activity and mental health: A three-year follow-up study of 15–16-year-old students in the city of Oslo, Norway

Physical activity per week
(age 15–16)
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (age 18–19)
  Boys Girls
  Crude Adjusted* Crude Adjusted*
  n mean 95%CI F p n mean 95%CI F p n mean 95%CI F p n mean 95%CI F p
SDQ – Emotional Symptoms   5.91 0.001     3.28 0.020     6.14 <0.001     0.08 0.971
0 hours 80 2.00 (1.60–2.40)    73 1.80 (1.46–2.14)    141 4.05 (3.64–4.46)    131 3.54 (3.19–3.89)   
1–4 hours 424 1.96 (1.78–2.13)    410 1.86 (1.72–2.01)    777 3.59 (3.42–3.76)    750 3.48 (3.34–3.62)   
5–7 hours 263 1.51 (1.32–1.69)    254 1.56 (1.38–1.75)    233 3.09 (2.80–3.37)    227 3.46 (3.20–3.73)   
8 hours or more 307 1.55 (1.38–1.73)    299 1.56 (1.40–1.73)    156 3.18 (2.80–3.56)    151 3.54 (3.22–3.87)   
SDQ – Conduct Problems   2.90 0.087     1.28 0.280     1.69 0.168     1.09 0.353
0 hours 81 1.62 (1.35–1.89)    74 1.57 (1.30–1.85)    141 1.89 (1.69–2.08)    131 1.69 (1.50–1.88)   
1–4 hours 424 1.71 (1.57–1.84)    412 1.71 (1.60–1.83)    777 1.64 (1.56–1.73)    753 1.63 (1.55–1.71)   
5–7 hours 263 1.51 (1.34–1.67)    253 1.58 (1.43–1.73)    233 1.65 (1.51–1.79)    227 1.70 (1.56–1.84)   
8 hours or more 307 1.79 (1.64–1.95)    300 1.75 (1.62–1.89    156 1.72 (1.53–1.92)    151 1.80 (1.63–1.97)   
SDQ – Hyperactivity- Inattention   1.14 0.331     0.92 0.431     1.14 0.331     0.47 0.700
0 hours 81 3.48 (3.00–3.96)    74 3.31 (2.89–3.73)    141 4.08 (3.75–4.41)    131 3.95 (3.63–4.27)   
1–4 hours 424 3.23 (3.04–3.42)    410 3.27 (3.09–3.45)    778 3.78 (3.63–3.92)    751 3.80 (3.67–3.93)   
5–7 hours 263 3.32 (3.08–3.56)    254 3.34 (3.11–3.57)    233 3.89 3.61–4.17)    227 3.90 (3.66–4.14)   
8 hours or more 307 3.50 (3.25–3.74)    299 3.50 (3.29–3.71)    156 3.99 (3.65–4.33)    151 3.93 (3.63–4.22)   
SDQ – Peer Problems   13.3 <0.001     2.57 0.053     4.41 0.004     2.10 0.098
0 hours 81 2.20 (1.83–2.56)    74 1.79 (1.48–2.10)    141 1.90 (1.62–2.18)    131 1.74 (1.50–1.98)   
1–4 hours 424 1.69 (1.54–1.84)    409 1.52 (1.39–1.65)    777 1.49 (1.38–1.60)    750 1.43 (1.34–1.53)   
5–7 hours 263 1.21 (1.04–1.38)    254 1.40 (1.23–1.56)    234 1.32 (1.13–1.50)    227 1.47 (1.29–1.65)   
8 hours or more 307 1.28 (1.11–1.45)    300 1.35 (1.20–1.50)    156 1.49 (1.24–1.73)    151 1.57 (1.35–1.79)   
SDQ – Prosocial Behavior**   5.00 0.002     4.44 0.004     0.96 0.411     0.79 0.490
0 hours 81 7.14 (6.72–7.55)    74 7.40 (7.04–7.75)    141 8.43 (8.22–8.65)    131 8.50 (8.28–8.72)   
1–4 hours 424 7.77 (7.61–7.94)    412 7.75 (7.60–7.90)    778 8.33 (8.23–8.44)    754 8.34 (8.25–8.43)   
5–7 hours 263 7.53 (7.32–7.73)    254 7.44 (7.25–7.63)    233 8.39 (8.21–8.57)    227 8.42 (8.25–8.58)   
8 hours or more 307 7.86 (7.67–8.04)    300 7.86 (7.68–8.04)    156 8.53 (8.32–8.74)    151 8.42 (8.22–8.63)   
SDQ – Total Difficulties   4.31 0.005     0.67 0.579     4.63 0.003     1.03 0.377
0 hours 80 9.24 (8.22–10.25)    73 8.32 (7.43–9.21)    141 11.91 (11.07–12.76)    131 10.88 (10.16–11.60)   
1–4 hours 424 8.58 (8.14–9.02)    409 8.35 (7.98–8.73)    776 10.51 (10.15–10.87)    749 10.35 (10.06–10.65)   
5–7 hours 263 7.54 (7.01–8.07)    253 7.93 (7.45–8.40)    233 9.94 (9.31–10.56)    227 10.56 (10.02–11.10)   
8 hours or more 307 8.13 (7.62–8.63)    299 8.15 (7.72–8.59)    156 10.38 (9.57–11.20)    151 10.83 (10.17–11.49)   
  1. *Adjusted for: invitation group, ethnicity, family economy, smoke, use of alcohol, and the respective SDQ subscore at baseline.
  2. **High values are positive