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Table 2 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) mean score at age 15–16 years (baseline) and at age 18–19 years (follow-up) in boys and girls in Oslo (2001–2004).

From: The association between weekly hours of physical activity and mental health: A three-year follow-up study of 15–16-year-old students in the city of Oslo, Norway

Measure and Time Point Boys Girls  
  n mean SD p time** n mean SD p time** p, gender***
SDQ -Emotional Symptoms     0.183     0.021  
   baseline 1074 1.64 1.69   1340 3.38 2.27   <0.001
   follow up 1082 1.73 1.69   1343 3.52 2.41   <0.001
SDQ – Conduct Problems*     <0.001     <0.001  
   baseline 1076 2.07 1.67   1344 1.88 1.37   0.002
   follow up 1083 1.67 1.39   1343 1.69 1.22   0.684
SDQ – Hyperactivity-Inattention     0.038     <0.001  
   baseline 1074 3.22 1.93   1339 3.62 1.90   <0.001
   follow up 1083 3.35 2.07   1344 3.88 2.11   <0.001
SDQ – Peer Problems*     0.009     0.008  
   baseline 1074 1.61 1.56   1340 1.39 1.39   <0.001
   follow up 1083 1.50 1.54   1344 1.51 1.53   0.874
SDQ -Prosocial Behavior*     <0.001     <0.001  
   baseline 1077 6.95 1.87   1344 7.98 1.55   <0.001
   follow up 1083 7.69 1.71   1342 8.38 1.40   <0.001
SDQ -Total Difficulties*     0.019     0.011  
   baseline 1072 8.53 4.63   1339 10.27 4.64   <0.001
   follow up 1082 8.25 4.51   1342 10.60 5.12   <0.001
  1. *General Linear Model Repeated Measure showed a statistical interaction between time and gender (p < 0.001)
  2. **Paired t-test
  3. ***Un-paired t-test