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Table 4 Associations between individual-level characteristics, neighborhood-level characteristics, and individual drinking (odds ratios), Taiwan Social Change Survey, 1990, 1995, and 2000

From: A multilevel analysis of neighborhood and individual effects on individual smoking and drinking in Taiwan

  Women (N = 2942) Men (N = 2941)
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Neighborhood education 1.27**   1.16** 1.02 1.15**   1.08 1.00
  (1.15–1.41)a   (1.05–1.26) (0.85–1.19) (1.04–1.27)   (0.98–1.18) (0.84–1.16)
Concentration of elderly people 0.95 (0.85–1.06)   0.99 (0.89–1.10) 0.86 (0.71–1.01) 0.97 (0.89–1.09)   1.01 (0.92–1.10) 0.97 (0.83–1.10)
Neighborhood social disorganization 1.03 (0.93–1.15)   1.01 (0.91–1.12) 1.14 (0.99–1.28) 1.10* (1.00–1.20)   1.08 (0.98–1.17) 1.18** (1.05–1.31)
Individual SES   1.86** 1.81** 1.87**   1.39** 1.36** 1.38**
   (1.67–2.06) (1.61–2.00) (1.67–2.06)   (1.22–1.57) (1.18–1.54) (1.20–1.56)
Suburban/urban   1.05     0.82   
   (0.82–1.28)     (0.61–1.03)   
Rural/urban   0.76     0.79   
   (0.45–1.08)     (0.53–1.06)   
Age 40–59/age 20–39   0.77** 0.74** 0.74**   0.76** 0.73** 0.73**
   (0.58–0.96) (0.55–0.93) (0.55–0.93)   (0.57–0.95) (0.55–0.91) (0.55–0.82)
Age 60+/age 20–39   0.24** 0.23** 0.24**   0.29** 0.28** 0.28**
   (-0.17–0.65) (-0.17–1.28) (-0.17–0.65)   (0.04–0.54) (0.03–0.53) (0.04–0.53)
Taiwanese   0.63** 0.64** 0.65**   0.71** 0.73* 0.74*
   (0.40–0.86) (0.41–0.87) (0.42–0.89)   (0.48–0.94) (0.50–0.97) (0.50–0.97)
Married   0.85     0.92   
   (0.66–1.03)     (0.74–1.11)   
Year 1990/year 2000   1.52** 1.51** 1.54**   1.69** 1.68** 1.68**
   (1.27–1.78) (1.25–1.77) (1.29–1.80)   (1.47–1.92) (1.45–1.90) (1.46–1.91)
Year 1995/year 2000   1.18 1.18 1.21   1.41** 1.41** 1.43**
   (0.91–1.46) (0.91–1.46) (0.93–1.48)   (1.19–1.63) (1.18–1.63) (1.20–1.65)
Neighborhood education × individual SES     1.17 (0.97–1.37)     1.11 (0.92–1.30)
Concentration of elderly people × individual SES     1.27** (1.09–1.45)     1.07 (0.91–1.24)
Neighborhood social disorganization × individual SES     0.81* (0.63–0.99)     0.83* (0.66–1.00)
  1. *P < 0.05 **P < 0.01 a95% confidence interval