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Table 3 Associations between individual-level characteristics, neighborhood-level characteristics, and individual smoking (odds ratios), Taiwan Social Change Survey, 1990, 1995, and 2000

From: A multilevel analysis of neighborhood and individual effects on individual smoking and drinking in Taiwan

  Women (N = 2942) Men (N = 2941)
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Neighborhood education 1.03   0.95 1.25 0.78**   0.83** 0.85
  (0.85–1.25)a   (0.74–1.23) (0.90–1.73) (0.72–0.84)   (0.73–0.93) (0.69–1.01)
Concentration of elderly people 0.89 (0.80–1.09)   0.87 (0.70–1.09) 0.98 (0.74–1.28) 0.94 (0.87–1.01)   0.95 (0.87–1.03) 0.92 (0.79–1.04)
Neighborhood social disorganization 1.34** (1.11–1.63)   1.23 (0.99–1.54) 1.36* (1.04–1.76) 1.02 (0.95–1.11)   1.03 (0.95–1.12) 1.13* (1.00–1.25)
Individual SES   0.67** 0.69** 0.38**   0.59** 0.63** 0.63**
   (0.37–0.96) (0.53–0.90) (0.25–0.57)   (0.42–0.76) (0.46–0.81) (0.45–0.80)
Suburban/urban   0.87 0.93 0.98   1.21* 1.06 1.04
   (0.43–1.30) (0.54–1.58) (0.52–1.87)   (1.04–1.38) (0.86–1.26) (0.83–1.24)
Rural/urban   0.51* 0.64 0.61   1.46* 1.02 1.02
   (-0.11–1.13) (0.47–1.50) (0.22–1.71)   (1.04–1.49) (0.71–1.33) (0.70–1.34)
Age 40–59/age 20–39   1.06     0.67** 0.67** 0.68**
   (0.76–1.35)     (0.49–0.85) (0.50–0.84) (0.50–0.85)
Age 60+/age 20–39   0.91     0.48** 0.50** 0.50**
   (0.50–1.31)     (0.24–0.72) (0.26–0.73) (0.27–0.74)
Taiwanese   0.30** 0.31** 0.28**   0.98   
   (0.01–0.60) (0.23–0.42) (0.21–0.37)   (0.78–1.19)   
Married   0.28** 0.29** 0.23**   0.94   
   (0.03–0.54) (0.23–0.37) (0.18–0.29)   (0.77–1.12)   
Year 1990/year 2000   1.50     1.53** 1.53** 1.55**
   (0.99–2.00)     (1.34–1.72) (1.34–1.72) (1.35–1.74)
Year 1995/year 2000   1.36     1.17 1.16 1.18
   (0.82–1.90)     (0.99–1.35) (0.98–1.34) (1.00–1.36)
Neighborhood education × individual SES     0.61* (0.41–0.89)     0.95 (0.77–1.13)
Concentration of the elderly people × individual SES     0.78 (0.52–1.17)     1.06 (0.91–1.22)
Neighborhood social disorganization × individual SES     0.88 (0.60–1.29)     0.85* (0.69–1.01)
  1. *P < 0.05 **P < 0.01 a95% confidence interval