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Archived Comments for: Early menopause, association with tobacco smoking, coffee consumption and other lifestyle factors: a cross-sectional study

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  1. Mechanisms involved

    James V. Kohl, Stone Independent Research

    31 July 2007

    Several citations from my database attest to the likelihood of a mechanism involving DHEA metabolism that may explain the association between smoking and menopause. Either the reduction in estrogen, or the increased production of androgens (and their metabolites) is indicated below. It would be interesting to learn more about any mechanism the authors are proposing.

    Antiestrogen effect of smoking

    Calle, E.E., Miracle-McMahill, H.L., Thun, M.J., & Heath Jr., C.W. (1994) Cigarette smoking and risk of fatal breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology, 139, 10, 1001﷓1007.

    Smoking increases DHEA

    Barrett-Conner, E., Khaw, K.T., Yen, S.S.C. (1986) A prospective study of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, mortality, and cardiovascular, disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 1519.

    Smoking increased androstenedione

    Byrne, B., Cunningham, S., Igoe, D., Conroy, R., & McKenna, T.J. (1991) Sex steroids, adiposity and smoking in the pathogenesis of idiopathic hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome. Acta Endocrinologica, 124, 3, 370﷓374.

    Smoking and 11-hydroxyandrosterone

    Key, T.J., Pike, M.C., Baron, J.A., Moore, J.W., Wang, D.Y., (1991) Cigarette smoking and steroid hormones in women. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 39, 4A, 529﷓534.

    Competing interests

    None declared