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Table 1 Study group characteristics by gender

From: Correlates of smoking initiation among young adults in Ukraine: a cross-sectional study

  Men Women
  N % or Mean 95%Confidence Interval N % or Mean 95% Confidence Interval
Total number 316   Lower bound Upper bound 293   Lower bound Upper bound
Reported the age of first cigarette 274 86,70% 82,96% 90,44% 179 61,10% 55,52% 66,68%
Reported the age of established daily smoking 225 71,20% 66,21% 76,19% 97 33,10% 27,71% 38,49%
Mean age at interview   22,36 21,90 22,82   22,69 22,18 23,19
Mean age of first cigarette   13,53 13,09 13,97   15,96 15,44 16,47
Mean age of established daily smoking   16,68 16,33 17,02   17,82 17,18 18,47
Education         
   Primary 47 14,90% 10,97% 18,83% 34 11,60% 7,93% 15,27%
   Secondary 138 43,70% 38,23% 49,17% 119 40,80% 35,17% 46,43%
   College 72 22,80% 18,17% 27,43% 74 25,30% 20,32% 30,28%
   University 59 18,70% 14,40% 23,00% 65 22,30% 17,53% 27,07%
Students 106 33,50% 28,30% 38,70% 99 33,80% 28,38% 39,22%
Type of settlement         
   city with >1 mln inhabitants 96 30,40% 25,33% 35,47% 93 31,70% 26,37% 37,03%
   City 93 29,40% 24,38% 34,42% 85 29,00% 23,80% 34,20%
   Town 59 18,70% 14,40% 23,00% 56 19,10% 14,60% 23,60%
   Village 68 21,50% 16,97% 26,03% 59 20,10% 15,51% 24,69%
Self reported income lower than middle 91 31,60% 26,47% 36,73% 64 23,60% 18,74% 28,46%
Self reported mobile telephone for personal use 190 60,30% 54,91% 65,69% 169 57,90% 52,25% 63,55%
Perceived SHS exposure daily or more frequently 213 68,90% 63,80% 74,00% 189 64,50% 59,02% 69,98%
Smoking restrictions at workplace or educational institution         
(1) smoking is either totally banned or there are no smokers 35 12,50% 8,85% 16,15% 48 21,70% 16,98% 26,42%
(2) smoking is restricted to particular places in the premises 94 33,50% 28,30% 38,70% 80 36,20% 30,70% 41,70%
(3) places allocated for smoking are also used by non-smokers 60 21,40% 16,88% 25,92% 48 21,70% 16,98% 26,42%
(4) there are no restrictions on smoking at all 92 32,70% 27,53% 37,87% 45 20,40% 15,79% 25,01%
Restrictions of smoking in the households         
(1) There are no smokers in the household 59 18,80% 14,49% 23,11% 77 26,30% 21,26% 31,34%
(2) Family members and guests smoke only outdoors 105 33,40% 28,20% 38,60% 87 29,70% 24,47% 34,93%
(3) Smoking takes place on the stairs, balcony etc. 87 27,70% 22,77% 32,63% 65 22,20% 17,44% 26,96%
(4) Smoking is limited to certain parts of the house or flat 46 14,60% 10,71% 18,49% 47 16,00% 11,80% 20,20%
(5) Smoking is not restricted 17 5,40% 2,91% 7,89% 17 5,80% 3,12% 8,48%
Summary of tobacco-related knowledge         
   1–5 correct answers 122 38,60% 33,23% 43,97% 80 27,30% 22,20% 32,40%
   6 correct answers 87 27,50% 22,58% 32,42% 97 33,10% 27,71% 38,49%
   7–11 correct answers 107 33,90% 28,68% 39,12% 116 39,60% 34,00% 45,20%
Reported contact with tobacco advertising         
   TV 78 24,70% 19,94% 29,46% 98 33,40% 28,00% 38,80%
   Radio 6 1,90% 0,39% 3,41% 10 3,40% 1,32% 5,48%
   Outdoor advertising 218 69,00% 63,90% 74,10% 177 60,40% 54,80% 66,00%
   Newspapers and magazines 31 9,80% 6,52% 13,08% 39 13,30% 9,41% 17,19%
   Advertising goods 42 13,30% 9,56% 17,04% 27 9,20% 5,89% 12,51%
   Bars/restaurants/shops 64 20,30% 15,87% 24,73% 46 15,70% 11,53% 19,87%
Sources of information about tobacco products, their impact on human health and political efforts to regulate this issue         
(1) Newspapers 85 26,90% 22,01% 31,79% 84 28,70% 23,52% 33,88%
(2) Magazines 62 19,60% 15,22% 23,98% 77 26,30% 21,26% 31,34%
(3) Radio 27 8,50% 5,43% 11,57% 28 9,60% 6,23% 12,97%
(4) Television 162 51,30% 45,79% 56,81% 140 47,80% 42,08% 53,52%
(5) Internet 8 2,50% 0,78% 4,22% 7 2,40% 0,65% 4,15%
(6) Lessons at school or other educational institution 38 12,00% 8,42% 15,58% 38 13,00% 9,15% 16,85%
(7) Medical workers 25 7,90% 4,93% 10,87% 28 9,60% 6,23% 12,97%
(8) Contact with family members 42 13,30% 9,56% 17,04% 29 9,90% 6,48% 13,32%
(9) Contact with friends or colleagues 55 17,40% 13,22% 21,58% 49 16,70% 12,43% 20,97%
(10) I don't receive this kind of information 59 18,70% 14,40% 23,00% 53 18,10% 13,69% 22,51%
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