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Table 1 Prevalence (and 95% confidence intervals) of risk factors in the adult population of Seychelles

From: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-income country and estimated cost of a treatment strategy

  Men Women Population aged 25–64*
  25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 Men Women Total
Smoking 30.2 32.1 31.2 29.3 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.3 30.8 3.9 17.4
  22.7–38.8 24.7–40.5 24.4–38.9 22.6–37.1 1.8–8.7 1.9–8.1 1.9–7.9 1.5–7.2 27.0–34.9 2.6–5.7 15.3–19.7
Overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) 41.3 55.2 63.3 50.7 55.0 67.6 76.2 83.4 52.0 68.3 60.1
  33.0–50.1 46.7–63.5 55.5–70.5 42.7–58.6 46.9–62.9 60.3–74.1 69.5–81.9 77.3–88.2 47.7–56.2 64.5–71.8 57.2–62.9
Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) 9.5 14.9 22.8 14.7 22.8 37.5 39.8 48.1 15.0 35.2 25.1
  5.5–16.1 9.8–22.1 16.9–30.0 9.8–21.3 16.8–30.3 30.6–44.9 32.9–47.1 40.9–55.4 12.3–18.3 31.6–38.8 22.8–27.5
HBP grade ≥1 (≥140/90 mmHg) 20.6 33.6 49.4 64.7 6.0 19.9 39.2 48.6 38.4 24.8 31.6
  14.4-28-6 26.1–42.0 41.6–57.2 56.7-71-9 3.2–11.2 14.6–26,5 32.3–46.5 41.4–55.9 34.6–42.3 22.0–27.9 29.1–34.2
HBP grade ≥2 (≥160/100 mmHg) 5.6 7.5 22.2 24.7 1.3 5.1 16.0 18.8 13.2 8.8 11.0
  2.7–11.2 4.1–13.4 16.3–29.3 18.4–32.2 0.3–5.2 2.7–8.6 11.3–22.1 13.7–25.2 10.8–16.1 7.0–10.8 9.4–12.8
Current treatment for HBP 5.6 14.9 32.9 46.0 6.0 18.2 37.6 58.6 21.4 25.6 23.5
  2.7–11.2 9.8–22.1 26.5–40.7 28.2–54.1 3.2–11.2 13.1–24.6 30.8–44.9 51.2–65.5 18.5–24.6 22.8–28.6 21.4–25.7
HBP grade ≥1 or treatment 23.0 38.8 56.3 72.7 10.1 30.1 51.9 70.2 43.6 35.5 39.6
  15.5–31.2 30.9–47.4 48.5–63.9 65.0–79.2 6.1–16.1 23.8–37.3 44.6–59.2 63.1–76.4 40.0–47.6 32.4–38.8 36.9–42.3
TC borderline or high (≥5.2 mmol/l) 41.3 55.2 57.6 53.3 36.2 48.3 60.2 69.6 51.1 50.8 51.0
  33.0–50.0 46.7–63.5 49.7–65.1 45.3–61.2 28.9–44.3 41.0–55.7 52.9–67.1 62.5–75.9 46.8–55.3 47.0–54.6 48.1–53.8
TC high (≥6.2 mmol/)l 17.5 31.3 29.8 26.7 16.1 14.8 32.0 53.6 25.8 25.7 24.2
  11.7–25.2 24.0–39.7 23.1–37.4 20.2–34.4 11.0–23.0 10.2–20.8 25.6–39.2 46.3–60.7 22.3–29.7 22.7–28.9 23.4–28.3
HDL-C low (<1.0 mmol/l) 19.8 31.3 28.5 20.0 14.8 12.5 20.4 21 25.2 16.5 20.8
  13.7–27.8 24.0–39.7 22.0–36.1 14.3–27.2 10.0–21.5 8.4–18.3 15.2–27.0 15.7–27.6 21.6–29.1 13.8–19.5 18.6-23-3
Diabetes (FBG≥7.0 mmol/l) 0.8 9.7 12.7 22.0 2.0 4.6 11.6 26.5 9.6 9.0 9.3
  0.1–5.5 5.7–16.0 8.3–18.9 16.1–29.3 0.6–6.1 2.3–8.9 7.7–17.2 20.6–33.4 7.6–12.1 7.3–11.2 7.9–10.9
Metabolic syndrome 4.9 19.4 29.1 28.5 9.4 21.6 36.1 48.0 18.7 25.5 22.1
  2.2–10.5 13.3–27.0 22.5–36.7 21.7–36.4 5.6–15.3 16.1–28.3 29.4–43.4 40.8–55.4 15.7–21.9 22.5–28.7 20.0–24.3
  1. HBP: high blood pressure; TC: total cholesterol; HDL-C: high density lipoprotein cholesterol; FBG: fasting blood glucose.
  2. * Overall estimates are adjusted to the distribution of the new World Health Organization standard population (19)