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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for Medicare-only beneficiaries (MOB) and dually eligible beneficiaries (DEB)

From: Health care utilization among Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibles: a count data analysis

Variable Total MOB DEB
    Total Asian Black Hispanic
N 8,262 (100%) 6,381 (77.2%) 1,881 (22.8%) 92 (1.11%) 475 (5.75%) 513 (6.21%)
Demographic variables       
Age (mean) 69.3 (15.4) 70.9*** (13.4) 64.1*** (19.8) 71.1 (16.0) 63.5 (20.7) 67.1 (18.1)
Elderly (age 65 and over) 0.80 (0.40) 0.84*** (0.37) 0.67*** (0.47) 0.88 (0.33) 0.65 (0.48) 0.77 (0.42)
Male 0.41 (0.49) 0.43*** (0.50) 0.32*** (0.47) 0.38 (0.49) 0.31 (0.48) 0.33 (0.42)
Married 0.41 (0.49) 0.47*** (0.50) 0.23*** (0.42) 0.44 (0.50) 0.15 (0.36) 0.31 (0.46)
Rural 0.27 (0.45) 0.26*** (0.44) 0.30*** (0.46) 0.04 (0.21) 0.28 (0.45) 0.38 (0.39)
College and more 0.12 (0.31) 0.13*** (0.33) 0.04*** (0.20) 0.12 (0.33) 0.03 (0.18) 0.02 (0.13)
High school graduation 0.40 (0.48) 0.40*** (0.49) 0.24*** (0.42) 0.12 (0.33) 0.25 (0.42) 0.12 (0.32)
Less than high school 0.48 (0.50) 0.47*** (0.50) 0.73*** (0.44) 0.76 (0.43) 0.74 (0.44) 0.86 (0.34)
Asian 0.02 (0.15) 0.02*** (0.13) 0.05*** (0.22) -- -- --
Hispanic 0.17 (0.37) 0.13*** (0.34) 0.27*** (0.45) -- -- --
Afro-American 0.18 (0.39) 0.16*** (0.37) 0.25*** (0.43) -- -- --
Socioeconomic variables       
Poverty 0.25 (0.43) 0.19*** (0.39) 0.45*** (0.50) 0.33 (0.47) 0.53 (0.50) 0.38 (0.49)
Still work 0.11 (0.31) 0.13*** (0.34) 0.04*** (0.20) 0.02 (0.15) 0.03 (0.18) 0.03 (0.17)
Health-related variables       
Poor health 0.36 (0.48) 0.32*** (0.47) 0.50*** (0.50) 0.36 (0.48) 0.50 (0.50) 0.52 (0.50)
Medical condition(s) of priority list 0.48 (0.50) 0.48*** (0.50) 0.51*** (0.50) 0.36 (0.50) 0.58 (0.50) 0.51 (0.50)
Number of co-morbidities 5.67 (4.19) 5.44*** (4.01) 6.47*** (4.68) 4.15 (3.16) 5.80 (4.45) 6.40 (4.62)
Limitation(s) to ADL 0.11 (0.43) 0.09*** (0.42) 0.20*** (0.46) 0.14 (0.43) 0.22 (0.47) 0.22 (0.47)
Limitation(s) to IADL 0.19 (0.46) 0.15*** (0.45) 0.33*** (0.49) 0.24 (0.48) 0.36 (0.50) 0.30 (0.49)
Dependent variables       
Office-based physician visits 6.42 (8.26) 6.09*** (7.44) 7.54*** (10.52) 5.98 (17.94) 6.81 (11.43) 7.73 (10.05)
Hospital inpatient nights 1.95 (7.49) 1.73*** (7.02) 2.66*** (8.86) 0.24 (1.04) 2.73 (8.31) 2.80 (9.13)
Home health provider days 11.87 (51.4) 5.82*** (34.0) 32.5*** (84.7) 5.04 (27.3) 40.8 (90.3) 36.35 (96.9)
Total dental visits 0.78 (1.98) 0.87*** (2.10) 0.48*** (1.50) 0.39 (1.00) 0.45 (1.32) 0.51 (1.54)
  1. Notes: Two-tailed t-tests are performed to see the statistical significance of differences in demographic, socioeconomic, health-related, and dependent variables between MOBs and DEBs. Mean values are reported with standard deviations in brackets. Mean values for the outcome variables reflect the mean values among all the eligible beneficiaries. Asterisks *, **, and *** indicate statistical significance at 10%, 5%, and 1% levels, respectively.