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Table 6 Association of parental educational and living conditions with health indicators of 6-year-old children in West Germany from 1991 to 2000. Results of multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses.

From: Preschool children's health and its association with parental education and individual living conditions in East and West Germany

Health indicator   Parental education Living condition
   Low parental educational level 1st step * Low parental educational level 2nd step ** Single child *** Small living space *** Unfavourable indoor air *** Damp housing condition *** Maternal smoking during pregnancy *** Living near a busy road ***
  Sample size Adjusted standardized means difference (95% confidence interval) – bold type if significant (p < 0.05)
Airway resistance [kPa•s/l] 983 1.030 (0.999–1.060) 1.015 (0.983–1.047) 0.993 (0.956–1.030) 1.017 (0.980–1.054) 1.022 (0.985–1.059) 0.942 (0.869–1.015) 1.051 (1.015–1.088) 1.018 (0.988–1.048)
Total lung capacity [% predicted] 787 1.003 (0.988–1.017) 1.006 (0.991–1.021) 1.017 (0.999–1.035) 0.986 (0.968–1.003) 0.993 (0.976–1.011) 1.026 (0.989–1.063) 0.995 (0.977–1.012) 0.993 (0.978–1.007)
Birth weight [g] 5812 0.982 (0.972–0.991) 1.000 (0.990–1.009) 0.973 (0.962–0.983) 0.982 (0.971–0.993) 0.999 (0.988–1.011) 1.018 (0.999–1.037) 0.935 (0.925–0.945) 0.994 (0.985–1.003)
Body height [cm] 5784 0.998 (0.996–1.001) 1.000 (0.998–1.003) 1.004 (1.001–1.006) 0.998 (0.995–1.000) 0.999 (0.996–1.003) 1.003 (0.998–1.008) 0.992 (0.989–0.994) 1.001 (0.998–1.003)
  Sample size Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) – bold type if significant (p < 0.05)
Overweight, BMI > 19 kg/m2 5783 1.83 (1.44–2.31) 1.67 (1.31–2.14) 1.33 (1.05–1.68) 1.15 (0.90–1.46) 1.12 (0.86–1.47) 1.26 (0.85–1.86) 1.20 (0.96–1.50) 1.03 (0.84–1.26)
Bronchitis, ever diagnosed 5757 0.67 (0.60–0.74) 0.68 (0.60–0.76) 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 0.86 (0.75–0.98) 1.15 (1.00–1.32) 1.30 (1.03–1.65) 1.01 (0.89–1.14) 1.01 (0.91–1.12)
More than 4 colds in the last 12 months 5768 0.83 (0.72–0.97) 0.84 (0.72–0.99) 1.19 (1.00–1.41) 0.95 (0.79–1.14) 0.96 (0.79–1.18) 1.62 (1.21–2.17) 0.83 (0.70–0.99) 1.11 (0.96–1.29)
Frequent cough 5892 1.12 (0.91–1.37) 0.98 (0.79–1.22) 1.13 (0.89–1.42) 1.16 (0.92–1.46) 0.88 (0.68–1.15) 2.60 (1.90–3.55) 1.16 (0.93–1.43) 1.25 (1.02–1.52)
Sneeze attacks in the last 12 months 5200 0.94 (0.73–1.20) 0.85 (0.65–1.11) 1.56 (1.18–2.05) 1.16 (0.86–1.56) 1.21 (0.88–1.66) 2.25 (1.52–3.33) 1.00 (0.76–1.32) 1.11 (0.87–1.42)
Allergy, ever diagnosed 5831 0.68 (0.59–0.79) 0.69 (0.59–0.81) 1.14 (0.95–1.36) 1.00 (0.83–1.20) 0.97 (0.79–1.19) 1.20 (0.87–1.66) 0.93 (0.78–1.11) 0.95 (0.81–1.10)
Eczema, ever diagnosed 5716 0.56 (0.48–0.66) 0.59 0.50–0.70) 0.80 (0.66–0.97) 0.88 (0.72–1.07) 1.07 (0.87–1.32) 1.10 (0.77–1.57) 0.85 (0.71–1.03) 1.07 (0.92–1.25)
Atopic eczema, day of investigation 2052 0.84 (0.61–1.16) 0.85 (0.61–1.19) 0.92 (0.61–1.40) 0.86 (0.55–1.33) 0.94 (0.62–1.43) 0.71 (0.28–1.82) 0.96 (0.64–1.46) 1.21 (0.87–1.69)
Specific IgE grass pollen positive 1807 0.84 (0.62–1.13) 0.84 (0.61–1.16) 1.78 (1.25–2.54) 1.22 (0.82–1.80) 0.84 (0.55–1.27) 0.56 (0.22–1.42) 0.82 (0.55–1.21) 1.09 (0.80–1.48)
Specific IgE house dust mite positive 1781 0.75 (0.57–1.00) 0.72 (0.53–0.97) 1.22 (0.86–1.73) 1.19 (0.83–1.71) 1.14 (0.79–1.63) 1.18 (0.60–2.30) 0.92 (0.64–1.32) 1.19 (0.89–1.58)
  1. * adjusted for gender, year of investigation and urban/rural residency; ** same as '*', but additionally adjusted for the six living conditions; *** same as '*', but additionally adjusted for parental education and the 5 other living conditions