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Table 1 Descriptive statistics and the mean number of risk factors by sociodemographic variables and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI)

From: Effort-reward imbalance at work and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors: cross-sectional survey in a sample of 36,127 public sector employees

  Women (N = 28,894) Men (N = 7233)
  N (%) Mean number of risk factors (SD) N (%) Mean number of risk factors (SD)
Age group (yr)     
   17 to 34 4913 (17) 0.7 (0.8) 1181 (16) 1.0 (0.9)
   35 to 50 14,878 (51) 0.9 (0.9) 3543 (49) 1.2 (0.9)
   51 to 64 9103 (32) 1.0 (0.9) 2509 (35) 1.3 (0.9)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Marital status     
   Married or cohabiting 21,506 (75) 0.9 (0.8) 5834 (81) 1.2 (0.9)
   Single, divorced or widowed 7311 (25) 0.9 (0.9) 1399 (19) 1.3 (1.0)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Socioeconomic position     
   Manual 3579 (12) 1.1 (0.9) 2404 (33) 1.4 (0.9)
   Lower non-manual 17,119 (59) 0.9 (0.8) 2057 (28) 1.2 (0.9)
   Upper non-manual 8196 (28) 0.8 (0.8) 2767 (38) 1.0 (0.9)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Type of job contract     
   Permanent 23,833 (83) 0.9 (0.9) 6282 (87) 1.2 (0.9)
   Fixed term 5061 (18) 0.8 (0.8) 951 (13) 1.0 (0.9)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Effort-Reward Imbalance (ecological score)     
   Low 9291 (32) 0.8 (0.8) 2826 (39) 1.1 (0.9)
   Intermediate 10,202 (35) 0.8 (0.8) 2059 (28) 1.2 (0.9)
   High 9710 (33) 1.0 (0.9) 2417 (33) 1.4 (0.9)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Effort-Reward Imbalance (individual score)     
   Low 9001 (31) 0.9 (0.8) 2657 (37) 1.2 (0.9)
   Intermediate 11,085 (38) 0.9 (0.8) 2429 (33) 1.2 (0.9)
   High 8758 (30) 0.9 (0.9) 2151 (30) 1.3 (1.0)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Lifestyle risk factors     
   Current smoker 4978 (17)   1715 (24)  
   Heavy drinker* 2210 (8)   890 (12)  
   Physically inactive 7065 (25)   1950 (27)  
   Body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 11,454 (40)   4252 (59)  
No. of risk factors     
   Zero 10,958 (38)   1731 (24)  
   One 11,437 (40)   2918 (40)  
   Two 5323 (19)   19537(27)  
   Three or four 1176 (4)   647 (9)  
  1. Only participants with no missing data in any of the variables were included. (In analyses for the individual level ERI score, N = 28,544 for women and N = 7170 for men.)
  2. SD, standard deviation
  3. p values from Chi Square test.
  4. *Average weekly consumption ≥190 g of absolute alcohol for women and >275 g for men.
  5. < 2 MET hours.