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Table 3 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for univariate analysis of HIV serostatus.

From: Demographic, risk behaviour and personal network variables associated with prevalent hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and HIV infection in injection drug users in Winnipeg, Canada

Variable name HIV negative (n = 334) (%) HIV positive (n = 26) (%) OR (95% CI) p value
Respondent variables
Years of injection drug use (quartiles)
0–6 100 (29.9) 2 (7.7) 1.0  
7–13 83 (24.9) 11 (42.3) 6.6 (1.4–30.7) 0.016
14–21 71 (21.3) 7 (26.9) 4.9 (0.9–24.4) 0.051
22–39 80 (24.0) 6 (23.1) 3.75 (0.7–19.0) 0.111
Gender     
Male 193 (57.8) 13 (50.0) 1.0  
Female 141 (42.2) 13 (50.0) 1.4 (0.6–3.0) 0.442
Education level     
< grade 12 234 (70.1) 19 (73.1) 1.0  
> grade 12 100 (29.9) 7 (26.9) 0.9 (0.4–2.1) 0.744
Ethnicity     
Caucasian 125 (37.4) 3 (11.5) 1.0  
Aboriginal 209 (62.6) 23 (88.5) 4.6 (1.4–15.6) 0.004
Mobility     
In Winnipeg > 1 year 244 (73.1) 18 (69.2) 1.0  
Moved to Winnipeg in past year 90 (27.0) 8 (30.8) 1.2 (0.5–2.9) 0.677
Deals drugs     
No 175 (52.4) 15 (57.7) 1.0  
Yes 159 (47.6) 11 (42.3) 0.8 (0.4–1.8) 0.601
Cocaine use     
No 122 (36.5) 6 (23.1) 1.0  
Yes 212 (63.5) 20 (76.9) 1.9 (0.7–4.9) 0.154
Talwin/ritalin use
No 228 (68.3) 16 (61.5) 1.0  
Yes 106 (31.7) 10 (38.5) 1.3 (0.6–3.1) 0.486
Morphine use     
No 209 (62.6) 21 (80.8) 1.0  
Yes 125 (37.4) 5 (19.2) 0.4 (0.1–1.1) 0.051
Heroin use     
No 299 (89.5) 26 (100)   
Yes 35 (10.5) 0 (0.00) Not defined  
Injects daily     
No 52 (15.6) 5 (19.2) 1.0  
Yes 282 (84.4) 21 (80.8) 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.631
Injected at a hotel
No 198 (59.3) 16 (61.5) 1.0  
Yes 136 (40.7) 10 (38.5) 0.9 (0.4–2.1) 0.821
injected at a shooting gallery
No 287 (85.9) 17 (65.4) 1.0  
Yes 47 (14.1) 9 (34.6) 3.2 (1.4–7.7) 0.012
Ever used someone else's syringe
No 136 (40.7) 2 (7.7) 1.0  
Yes 198 (59.3) 24 (92.3) 8.2 (1.9–35.5) <0.001
Injected someone else as a service
No 256 (76.7) 13 (50.0) 1.0  
Yes 78 (23.3) 13 (50.0) 3.3 (1.5–7.4) 0.005
Obtains syringes from friends
No 106 (31.7) 13 (50.0) 1.0  
Yes 228 (68.3) 13 (50.0) 0.5 (0.2–1.0) 0.063
Obtains syringes from questionable sources
No 257 (77.0) 19 (73.1) 1.0  
Yes 77 (23.1) 7 (26.9) 1.2 (0.5–3.0) 0.658
Opposite-sex regular partners
No 105 (31.4) 8 (30.8) 1.0  
Yes 229 (68.6) 18 (69.2) 1.0 (0.4–2.4) 0.944
Opposite-sex casual partners
No 208 (62.3) 18 (69.2) 1.0  
Yes 126 (37.7) 8 (30.8) 0.7 (0.3–1.7) 0.474
Opposite-sex client partners
No 290 (86.8) 19 (73.1) 1.0  
Yes 44 (37.7) 7 (26.9) 2.4 (1.0–6.1) 0.076
Regular same-sex partners
No 326 (97.6) 24 (92.3) 1.0  
Yes 8 (2.4) 2 (7.7) 3.4 (0.7–16.9) 0.183
Casual same-sex partners
No 320 (95.8) 25 (96.2) 1.0  
Yes 14 (4.2) 1 (3.9) 0.9 (0.1–7.2) 0.932
Client same-sex partners
No 329 (98.5) 23 (88.5) 1.0  
Yes 5 (1.5) 3 (11.5) 8.6 (1.9–38.2) 0.013
Egocentric network variables (maximum number of network members = 20)
Total number of IDU in network
Median (IQR) 3 (2,5) 2 (0,5) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.241
Total number of IDU family members in network
Median (IQR) 0 (0,1) 0 (0,2) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0.260
Spouse IDU in network
No 215 (64.4)) 17 (65.4) 1.0  
Yes 119 (35.6) 9 (34.6) 1.0 (0.4–2.2) 0.917
IDU risk network variables (maximum number of IDU = 5)
Number of IDU respondent sees daily
None 107 (32.0) 12 (46.2) 1.0  
1 112 (33.5) 6 (23.1) 0.5 (0.2–1.3) 0.154
2 58 (17.4) 5 (19.2) 0.8 (0.3–2.3) 0.637
3–5 57 (17.1) 3 (11.5) 0.5 (0.1–1.7) 0.256
Number of IDU in network who inject daily
None 191 (57.2) 17 (65.4) 1.0  
1 63 (18.9) 2 (7.7) 0.4 (0.1–1.6) 0.176
2 45 (13.5) 4 (15.4) 1.0 (0.3–3.1) 0.998
3–5 35 (10.5) 3 (11.5) 1.0 (0.3–3.5) 0.954
Number of IDU in network who have been IDU for >5 years
0 159 (47.6) 14 (53.9) 1.0  
1 65 (19.5) 3 (11.5) 0.5 (0.1–1.9) 0.323
2 52 (15.6) 4 (15.4) 0.9 (0.3–2.8) 0.819
3–5 58 (17.4) 5 (19.2) 1.0 (0.3–2.8) 0.969
Number of IDU in network who have injected at a hotel
0 207 (62.0) 20 (76.9) 1.0  
1 64 (19.2) 2 (7.7) 0.3 (0.1–1.4) 0.135
2–5 63 (18.9) 4 (15.4) 0.7 (0.2–2.0) 0.458
Number of IDU in network who have injected at a shooting gallery
0 254 (76.1) 20 (76.9) 1.0  
1 43 (12.9) 2 (7.7) 0.6 (0.1–2.6) 0.488
2–5 37 (11.1) 4 (15.4) 1.4 (0.4–4.2) 0.582
Number of IDU in network with whom respondent has pooled money
0 94 (28.1) 12 (46.2) 1.0  
1 91 (27.3) 4 (15.4) 0.3 (0.1–1.1) 0.074
2–3 90 (27.0) 6 (23.1) 0.5 (0.2–1.5) 0.213
4–5 59 (17.7) 4 (15.4) 0.5 (0.2–1.7) 0.292
Number of IDU in network who have used a syringe before the respondent used it
0 255 (76.4) 20 (76.9) 1.0  
1 56 (16.8) 4 (15.4) 0.9 (0.3–2.8) 0.869
2–5 23 (6.9) 2 (7.7) 1.1 (0.2–5.0) 0.894
Number of IDU in network who have used other drug paraphernalia before respondent has used it.
0 201 (60.2) 17 (65.4) 1.0  
1 59 (17.7) 3 (11.5) 0.6 (0.2–2.1) 0.429
2–5 74 (22.2) 6 (23.1) 1.0 (0.4–2.5) 0.932
Number of IDU in network who have initiated respondent to injection drug use
0 242 (72.5) 21 (80.8) 1.0  
1 77 (23.1) 5 (19.2) 0.7 (0.3–2.1) 0.563
2–5 15 (4.5) 0 (0.0) Not defined  
Number of IDU in network who have shown respondent how to inject drugs
0 229 (68.6) 19 (73.1) 1.0  
1 75 (22.5) 6 (23.1) 1.0 (0.4–2.5) 0.940
2–5 30 (9.0) 1 (3.9) 0.4 (0.1–3.1) 0.382
Number of IDU in network who have injected respondent with drugs
0 161 (48.2) 12 (46.2) 1.0  
1 95 (28.4) 5 (19.2) 0.7 (0.2–2.1) 0.525
2–5 78 (23.4) 9 (34.6) 1.5 (0.6–3.8) 0.344
Number of IDU in network who have used talwin/ritalin
0 239 (71.6) 17 (65.4) 1.0  
1–3 54 (16.2) 4 (15.4) 1.0 (0.3–3.2) 0.944
4–5 41 (12.3) 5 (19.2) 1.7 (0.6–4.9) 0.315
Number of IDU in network who have used cocaine
0 210 (62.9) 18 (69.2) 1.0  
1 55 (16.5) 3 (11.5) 0.6 (0.2–2.2) 0.481
2–3 44 (13.2) 4 (15.4) 1.1 (0.3–3.3) 0.919
4–5 25 (7.5) 1 (3.9) 0.5 (0.1–3.6) 0.467
Number of IDU in network who have used morphine
0 255 (76.4) 21 (80.8) 1.0  
1 46 (13.8) 4 (15.4) 1.1 (0.3–3.2) 0.924
2–5 33 (9.9) 1 (3.9) 0.4 (0.0–2.8) 0.336