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Table 1 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for univariate analysis of HCV serostatus.

From: Demographic, risk behaviour and personal network variables associated with prevalent hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and HIV infection in injection drug users in Winnipeg, Canada

Variable name HCV negative (n = 167) (%) HCV positive (n = 198) (%) OR (95% CI) p value
Respondent variables
Years of injection drug use (quartiles)
0–6 81 (48.5) 20 (10.1) 1.0  
7–13 46 (27.5) 51 (25.8) 4.5 (2.4–8.4) <0.001
14–21 19 (11.4) 61 (30.8) 13.0 (6.4–26.5) <0.001
22–39 21 (12.6) 66 (33.3) 12.7 (6.4–25.5) <0.001
Gender     
Male 96 (57.5) 113 (57.1) 1.0  
Female 71 (42.5) 85 (42.9) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 0.937
Education level     
< grade 12 116 (69.5) 142 (71.7) 1.0  
> grade 12 51 (30.5) 56 (28.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 0.637
Ethnicity     
Caucasian 71 (42.5) 57 (28.8) 1.0  
Aboriginal 96 (57.5) 141 (71.2) 1.8 (1.2–2.8) 0.006
Moved to Winnipeg in past year
No 112 (67.1) 153 (77.3) 1.0  
Yes 55 (32.9) 45 (22.7) 0.6 (0.4–1.0) 0.030
Deals drugs     
No 85 (50.9) 107 (54.0) 1.0  
Yes 82 (49.1) 91 (46.0) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.549
Cocaine use     
No 62 (37.1) 69 (34.9) 1.0  
Yes 105 (62.9) 129 (65.1) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.651
Talwin/ritalin use
No 134 (80.2) 113 (57.1) 1.0  
Yes 33 (19.8) 85 (42.9) 3.1 (1.9–4.9) <0.001
Morphine use     
No 110 (65.9) 121 (61.1) 1.0  
Yes 57 (34.1) 77 (38.9) 1.2 (0.8–1.9) 0.347
Heroin use     
No 145 (86.8) 184 (92.9) 1.0  
Yes 22 (13.2) 14 (7.1) 0.5 (0.2–1.0) 0.052
Injects daily     
No 20 (12.0) 43 (21.7) 1.0  
Yes 147 (88.0) 155 (78.3) 0.5 (0.3–0.9) 0.013
Injected at a hotel
No 109 (65.3) 107 (54.0) 1.0  
Yes 58 (34.7) 91 (46.0) 1.6 (1.0–2.4) 0.029
Injected at a shooting gallery
No 153 (91.6) 156 (78.8) 1.0  
Yes 14 (8.4) 42 (21.2) 2.9 (1.5–5.6) <0.001
Ever used someone else's syringe
No 90 (53.9) 49 (24.8) 1.0  
Yes 77 (46.1) 149 (75.3) 3.6 (2.3–5.5) <0.001
Injected someone else as a service
No 144 (86.2) 125 (63.1) 1.0  
Yes 23 (13.8) 73 (36.9) 3.7 (2.2–6.2) <0.001
Obtains syringes from friends
No 50 (29.9) 73 (36.9) 1.0  
Yes 117 (70.1) 125 (63.1) 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.162
Obtains syringes from questionable sources
No 135 (80.8) 144 (72.7) 1.0  
Yes 32 (19.2) 54 (27.3) 1.6 (1.0–2.6) 0.067
Opposite-sex regular partners
No 51 (30.5) 65 (31.8) 1.0  
Yes 116 (69.5) 163 (68.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 0.640
Opposite-sex casual partners
No 101 (60.5) 129 (65.2) 1.0  
Yes 66 (39.5) 69 (34.9) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.357
Opposite-sex client partners
No 151 (90.4) 163 (82.3) 1.0  
Yes 16 (9.6) 35 (17.7) 2.0 (1.1–3.8) 0.024
Regular same-sex partners
No 160 (95.8) 195 (98.5) 1.0  
Yes 7 (4.2) 3 (1.5) 0.4 (0.1–1.4) 0.116
Casual same-sex partners
No 160 (95.8) 191 (96.5) 1.0  
Yes 7 (4.2) 7 (3.5) 0.8 (0.3–2.4) 0.745
Client same-sex partners
No 163 (97.6) 194 (98.0) 1.0  
Yes 4 (2.4) 4 (2.0) 0.8 (0.2–3.4) 0.808
Egocentric network variables (maximum number of network members = 20)
Total number of IDU in network
Median (IQR) 3 (1,5) 3 (1,5) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.194
Total number of IDU family members in network
Median (IQR) 0 (0,0) 0 (0,1) 1.29 (1.1–1.6) 0.10
Spouse IDU in network
No 109 (65.3) 127 (64.1) 1.0  
Yes 58 (34.7) 71 (35.9) 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 0.822
IDU risk network variables (maximum number of IDU = 5)
Number of IDU respondent sees daily
None 54 (32.3) 66 (33.3) 1.0  
1 55 (32.9) 68 (34.3) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.964
2 32 (19.2) 30 (15.2) 0.8 (0.4–1.4) 0.398
3–5 26 (15.6) 34 (17.2) 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 0.832
Number of IDU in network who inject daily
None 104 (62.3) 105 (53.0) 1.0  
1 32 (19.2) 36 (18.2) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 0.699
2 19 (11.4) 31 (15.7) 1.6 (0.9–3.0) 0.137
3–5 12 (7.2) 26 (13.1) 2.1 (1.0–4.5) 0.042
Number of IDU in network who have been IDU for >5 years
0 101 (60.5) 74 (37.4) 1.0  
1 28 (16.8) 40 (20.2) 1.9 (1.1–3.4) 0.021
2 18 (10.8) 39 (19.7) 3.0 (1.6–5.6) 0.001
3–5 20 (12.0) 45 (22.7) 3.1 (1.7–5.6) <0.001
Number of IDU in network who have injected at a hotel
0 117 (70.1) 112 (56.6) 1.0  
1 29 (17.4) 39 (19.7) 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 0.222
2–5 21 (12.6) 47 (23.7) 2.3 (1.3–4.2) 0.004
Number of IDU in network who have injected at a shooting gallery
0 134 (80.2) 143 (72.2) 1.0  
1 18 (10.8) 27 (13.6) 1.4 (0.7–2.7) 0.298
2–5 15 (9.0) 28 (14.1) 1.7 (0.9–3.4) 0.102
Number of IDU in network with whom respondent has pooled money
0 51 (30.5) 56 (28.3) 1.0  
1 42 (25.2) 54 (27.3) 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 0.576
2–3 43 (25.8) 55 (27.8) 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 0.587
4–5 31 (18.6) 33 (16.7) 1.0 (0.5–1.8) 0.922
Number of IDU in network who have used a syringe before the respondent used it
0 133 (79.6) 146 (73.7) 1.0  
1 27 (16.2) 32 (16.2) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 0.790
2–5 7 (4.2) 20 (10.1) 2.6 (1.1–6.4) 0.036
Number of IDU in network who have used other drug paraphernalia before respondent has used it.
0 105 (62.9) 119 (60.1) 1.0  
1 29 (17.4) 31 (16.7) 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 0.841
2–5 33 (19.8) 48 (24.2) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 0.342
Number of IDU in network who have initiated respondent to injection drug use
0 110 (65.9) 157 (79.3) 1.0  
1 48 (28.8) 35 (17.7) 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 0.008
2–5 9 (5.4) 6 (3.0) 0.5 (0.2–1.4) 0.160
Number of IDU in network who have shown respondent how to inject drugs
0 104 (62.3) 147 (74.2) 1.0  
1 43 (25.8) 39 (19.7) 0.6 (0.4–1.1) 0.083
2–5 20 (12.0) 12 (6.1) 0.4 (0.2–0.9) 0.027
Number of IDU in network who have injected respondent with drugs
0 89 (53.3) 88 (44.4) 1.0  
1 44 (26.4) 54 (27.3) 1.2 (0.8–2.0) 0.392
2–5 34 (20.4) 56 (28.3) 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 0.054
Number of IDU in network who have used talwin/ritalin
0 139 (83.2) 119 (60.1) 1.0  
1–3 17 (10.1) 42 (21.1) 2.9 (1.6–5.3) <0.001
4–5 11 (6.6) 37 (18.7) 3.9 (1.9–8.0) <0.001
Number of IDU in network who have used cocaine
0 113 (67.7) 120 (60.6) 1.0  
1 23 (13.8) 36 (18.2) 1.5 (0.8–2.6) 0.192
2–3 17 (10.2) 30 (15.2) 1.7 (0.9–3.2) 0.125
4–5 14 (8.4) 12 (6.1) 0.8 (0.4–1.8) 0.605
Number of IDU in network who have used morphine
0 129 (77.3) 149 (75.3) 1.0  
1 22 (13.2) 31 (15.7) 1.2 (0.7–2.2) 0.513
2–5 16 (9.6) 18 (9.1) 1.0 (0.5–2.0) 0.942