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Table 1 Distribution of the study population according to smoking status and selected characteristics

From: Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

Characteristics Total Smoking status
    Smokers Ex-smokers Never-smokers
  No. (%) No. % No. % No. %
Total number of subjects 907 (100) 736 81 105 12 66 7
Age         
   ≤ 20 85 (9) 74 87 4 5 7 8
   21–30 372 (41) 296 79 51 14 25 70
   31–40 253 (28) 203 80 28 11 22 9
   41–50 156 (17) 132 85 16 10 8 5
   > 50 41 (5) 31 75 6 15 4 10
Imprisonment status*         
   Provisionally detained 319 (35) 238 75 37 11 44 14
   First sentenced 227 (25) 193 85 21 9 13 6
   Recidivists 351 (39) 297 85 45 13 9 2
   Missing data 10 (1) 8 80 2 20 0 0
Education **         
   Elementary or vocational school 648 (71) 544 84 65 10 39 6
   Secondary/university 226 (25) 164 72 38 17 24 11
   Missing data 33 (4) 28 85 2 6 3 9
Alcohol and/or illicit drug 500 (55) 434 87 46 9 20 4
abuse ***         
   Very excessive drinkers 122 (13) 107 88 10 8 5 4
   Excessive drinkers 130 (14) 112 86 13 10 5 4
   Mild drinkers 151 (17) 135 89 9 6 7 5
   Drug abusers 95 (10) 76 80 16 17 3 3
   Drug incidentally users 94 (10) 80 85 8 9 6 6
   No substance abuse reported 362 (40) 261 72 55 15 46 13
   Missing data 45 (5) 41 91 4 9 0 0
  1. * p = 0.0002 comparing the rates of smokers and non smokers (combined ex- and never smokers) among subjects provisionally detained vs. others (first sentenced and recidivists)
  2. ** p < 0.0001 comparing the rates of smokers and non-smokers among subjects with secondary/university education vs. others (combined subjects with primary/vocational education and missing data).
  3. *** p < 0.0001 comparing the rates of ever-smokers (combined current and former smokers) and never smokers among alcohol and/or illicit drug abusers vs. no substance abusers.
  4. The number of 500 subjects reporting alcohol and/or illicit drug abusing does not reflect a total of the listed subcategories of abusers, because they are not exclusive.