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Table 3 Mental health scales of students who started or did not start smoking during the 6 years of medical education.

From: The incidence of smoking and risk factors for smoking initiation in medical faculty students: cohort study

Mental State Scale Started smoking (n = 30) Mean ± SD Not started smoking (n = 63) Mean ± SD p*
STAI-State 41.9 ± 7.1 38.8 ± 8.2 0.078
STAI-Trait 45.7 ± 6.0 42.2 ± 7.3 0.027
BDI 9.8 ± 5.6 7.5 ± 5.7 0.078
GHQ 4.6 ± 2.2 4.2 ± 2.4 0.480
  1. *: Student t test.
  2. STAI_State: Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
  3. STAI- Trait: Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
  4. BDI: Beck Depression Inventory
  5. GHQ: General Health Questionnaire-12