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Table 3 Multivariable GEE results – Epworth scores and bedtime habits.

From: "Sleepiness" is serious in adolescence: Two surveys of 3235 Canadian students

Variable Odds Ratio 95%Confidence Interval p value
Gender 1.1042 1.0369 1.1759 0.0020
Weeknight sleep hours* 0.7328 0.6411 0.8376 <0.0001
Consistent bedtime routine 0.4554 0.3756 0.5523 <0.0001
Up late to study 1.4594 1.1667 1.8256 0.0009
Caffeine after 6 P.M. 1.2318 1.2064 1.2577 <0.0001
Smoke before bed 1.1841 0.9983 1.4045 0.0523
Eat before bed 1.0007 0.9632 1.0397 0.9727
  1. * OR calculated based on one hour of weeknight sleep (ICC = 0.0018)