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Table 2 Distribution of parental education, parental employment status, small living space and health-related living conditions of 6-year-old children in East Germany (1991–2000), by study region

From: Changes in social inequality with respect to health-related living conditions of 6-year-old children in East Germany after re-unification

  Total Urban a Rural b p-value c
  n n % n % c
Parental educational level (highest school grade):       
   Low (less than grade 10) 1380 997 5.7 383 5.8  
   Middle (grade 10) 11113 7730 44.4 3383 50.9 <.0001
   High (more than grade 10) 11586 8700 50.0 2886 43.4  
Mother and father not in paid employment 738 599 14.6 139 10.2 <.0001
Small living space (per-capita < 20 m2) 13570 10133 56.9 3437 50.5 <.0001
Damp housing condition 2617 2115 12.1 502 7.5 <.0001
Single oven heating at child's home 8617 6725 40.4 1892 29.5 <.0001
Living at busy road (distance < 50 m to traffic) 14482 10812 62.0 3670 55.3 <.0001
  1. aLeipzig, Halle and Magdeburg; bSalzwedel, Gardelegen, Osterburg and Kloetze; cp-value of chi-square test