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Table 4 Associations of Chronic Conditions and Age with Functional Decline in Participants Without Initial Functional Limitation (n = 1067)

From: Increase of mild disability in Japanese elders: A seven year follow-up cohort study

   outcome level
   mild    severe   
Gender Covariate R.R 95% C.I. P R.R 95% C.I. P
Male        
  age* 2.5 (1.4–4.5) P < 0.01 5.3 (2.1–13.2) P < 0.01
  chronic arthritis 1.9 (0.6–6.2)   1.6 (0.3–8.6)  
  osteoporosis† 4.4 (0.5–36.2)   n.a   
  bone fracture 2.6 (0.8–8.1)   1.7 (0.2–14.8)  
  CVA§ 5.6 (1.7–19.1) P < 0.01 20.3 (5.2–78.6) P < 0.01
  diabetes 1.2 (0.4–3.1)   2.5 (0.6–10.1)  
  chronic lung disease 2.2 (0.9–5.6)   2.9 (0.7–12.0)  
  eye disease 1.0 (0.4–2.4)   1.0 (0.3–3.6)  
  malignancy† 5.4 (1.6–18.3) P < 0.01 n.a   
Female        
  age* 4.9 (3.4–7.1) P < 0.01 9.0 (4.4–18.2) P < 0.01
  chronic arthritis 2.8 (1.5–5.2) P < 0.01 5.4 (1.9–15.8) P < 0.01
  osteoporosis 1.4 (0.6–3.2)   2.6 (0.7–9.9)  
  bone fracture 1.3 (0.6–3.1)   1.1 (0.3–4.9)  
  CVA§ 3.4 (0.6–19.8)   22.3 (2.5–198.5) P < 0.01
  diabetes 2.6 (1.2–5.9) P < 0.05 1.5 (0.2–13.2)  
  chronic lung disease 0.3 (0.1–1.1)   1.5 (0.3–8.0)  
  eye disease 1.1 (0.6–1.8)   0.8 (0.3–2.3)  
  malignancy† 0.8 (0.3–2.3)   n.a   
  1. *effect of ten-year increase, † insufficient numbers in category, §cerebrovascular accident