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Table 1 Population characteristics and univariate associations of factors with mean A1C. Project Dulce, 2000–2002 (N = 573)

From: Predictors of glycemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal study

Demographic factors    
  n (%) Mean A1C (%) p value
Gender, n (%)    0.99
1. Female 392 (68.7%) 7.63  
2. Male 179 (31.4%) 7.63  
Age, n (%) Mean = 55.4 ± 10.1   < 0.0001
1. < 50 years 149 (26.0%) 7.89 1 > 2, 3
2. 50–65 355 (62.0%) 7.57  
3. > 65 69 (12.0%) 7.36  
Ethnicity, n (%)    < 0.0001
1. Hispanic 304 (53.3%) 7.84 2 > 3, 4
2. Black 39 (6.8%) 7.96 4 < 2
3. Asian 100 (17.5%) 7.06 3 < 1,2, 5
4. Other 11 (1.9%) 7.46  
5. White 116 (20.4%) 7.55  
Primary Language, n (%)    0.18
1. Not English 302 (52.8%) 7.58  
2. English 270 (47.2%) 7.68  
Diabetes severity    
Diabetes duration, n (%) Mean = 7.1 ± 7.1   < 0.0001
1. < 1 year 122 (21.9%) 7.04 4 > 3 > 2 > 1
2. 1 – 5 years 195 (34.9%) 7.45  
3. 6 – 10 years 93 (16.7%) 7.77  
4. > 10 years 148 (26.5%) 8.19  
Medicine, n (%)    < 0.0001
1. Insulin alone or insulin + oral agents 177 (30.9%) 8.32 1 > 2 > 3
2. > 1 oral agent (no insulin) 284 (49.6%) 7.58  
3. No medicine or 1 oral agent 112 (19.5%) 6.47  
Health status    
Systolic blood pressure, n (%) Mean = 125.2 ± 11.9   0.33
1. < 130 mm Hg 404 (70.5%) 7.65  
2. ≥ 130 mm Hg 169 (29.5%) 7.57  
Diastolic blood pressure, n (%) Mean = 72.1 ± 6.6   0.19
1. < 80 mm Hg 506 (88.3%) 7.64  
2. ≥ 80 mm Hg 67 (11.7%) 7.48  
Total cholesterol, n (%) Mean = 187.6 ± 36.0   < 0.0001
1. < 200 mg/dl 386 (68.2%) 7.45  
2. ≥ 200 mg/dl 180 (31.8%) 8.03  
HDL, n (%) Mean = 45.3 ± 12.0   0.27
1. ≤ 45 mg/dl 322 (56.6%) 7.73  
2. > 45 mg/dl 247 (43.4%) 7.59  
Urine Microalbumin / creatinine, n (%) Mean = 139.9 ± 480.7   < 0.0001
1. < 30 ug/mg 356 (63.6%) 7.40 3 > 2 > 1
2. 30 – 299 ug/mg 160 (28.6%) 7.84  
3. ≥ 300 ug/mg 44 (7.8%) 8.55  
Body Mass Index, n (%) Mean = 32.5 ± 7.5   0.003
1. < 30 kg/m2 246 (43.2%) 7.50  
2. ≥ 30 kg/m2 323 (56.8%) 7.72  
Access/quality of care    
Insurance, n (%)    < 0.0001
1. Uninsured 169 (29.5%) 8.10 1 > 2, 3
2. County Medical Services 249 (43.5%) 7.39  
3. Insurance 155 (27.0%) 7.50  
Number of provider visits, n (%) Mean = 10.2 ± 4.4   0.002
1. 3 – 6 118 (20.6%) 7.72 4 > 2, 3
2. 7 – 10 225 (39.3%) 7.56  
3. 11 – 15 166 (29.0%) 7.51  
4. > 15 64 (11.1%) 7.93  
Duration in program, n (%) Mean = 15.7 ± 5.5   0.0001
1. 6 – 12 months 212 (37%) 7.88  
2. > 12 – 24 months 361 (63%) 7.53  
Seen by nutritionist, n (%)    0.32
1. Yes 475 (82.9%) 7.61  
2. No 98 (17.1%) 7.71  
Behavioral Factors    
Smoking habit, n (%)    0.29
1. Current 63 (12.5%) 7.58  
2. Past 162 (32.0%) 7.60  
3. Never 281 (55.5%) 7.72  
Diabetes Classes Attended, n (%) Mean = 1.5 ± 3.0   0.002
1. 0 358 (74.3%) 7.60 2 > 1 > 3
2. 1–4 42 (8.7%) 7.88  
3. 5 + 82 (17.0%) 7.31  
  1. Multiple comparison tests in ANOVA were done with the Duncan function in SAS 8.1