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Table 4 Multivariate adjusted incidence rate ratios for skin infections using a negative binomial model adjusted for clustering of children in dwellings.

From: Skin infection, housing and social circumstances in children living in remote Indigenous communities: testing conceptual and methodological approaches

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  IRR (95% CI) IRR (95% CI) IRR (95% CI) IRR (95% CI)
Main effects     
Facilities for removing human faeces not functioning 1.28 (0.88–1.85) na na 2.03 (1.34–3.06)
Combined HLPs na 1.37 (0.92–2.03) na na
Dwelling built pre 19801,2,3 0.76 (0.36–1.61) 0.64 (0.32–1.30) 1.16 (0.51–2.60) na
Concrete/other floor material1 2.27 (0.67–7.67) a a na
Household cleaning equipment missing3 a a 1.82 (1.18–2.81) a
Internal contaminants present a a a 0.67 (0.45–1.00)
External contaminants present a a a 2.27 (1.28–4.03)
Child age     
Less than 3 years1,2,3 1.57 (1.06–2.33) 1.46 (0.98–2.18) 1.54 (1.04–2.29) 1.63 (1.17–2.28)
3 to less than 7 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Carer age     
Less than 20 years 2.29 (1.60–3.26) 2.36 (1.54–3.63) 2.19 (1.45–3.29) a
20 to 34 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 a
35 years or more 2.41 (1.57–3.71) 2.30 (1.56–3.39) 2.38 (1.64–3.44) a
Three carers in dwelling4 a a a 0.63 (0.21–1.90)
4 or more children under 7 years 2.55 (1.70–3.81) 1.95 (1.26–3.02) 1.89 (1.23–2.92) a
Child mobile 1.39 (0.88–2.20) 1.46 (0.90–2.36) 1.57 (0.98–2.50) a
Residence per bedroom     
   Lowest (≤ 2 per bedroom) 1.00 1.00 1.00 a
   Middle (2 to ≤ 4 per bedroom)1 2.22 (0.89–5.52) 1.35 (0.72–2.52) 1.25 (0.70–2.26) a
   Highest (4 to 8.33 per bedroom)1 1.61 (0.61–4.21) 1.81 (0.90–3.63) 1.54 (0.81–2.93) a
Carers education     
   Grade 11 and 12 a a a 1.00
   Grade 9 and 10 a a a 0.92 (0.53–1.61)
   Grade 8 and below a a a 1.70 (1.02–2.84)
Low family income (≤ $935) 2.21 (1.53–3.20) 1.84 (1.25–2.69) 1.78 (1.24–2.57) 1.62 (1.10–2.37)
Carer unemployed4 0.73 (0.52–1.03) a a 0.53 (0.35–0.82)
Interactions     
Child less than 3 years × dwelling built pre-1980 3.04 (1.52–6.08) 3.63 (1.74–7.57) 4.14 (1.95–8.80) na
Cleaning equipment missing × dwelling built pre-1980 a a 0.36 (0.17–0.74) na
Concrete/other floor material × middle level crowding 0.35 (0.09–1.30) a a na
Concrete/other floor material × highest level crowding 1.11 (0.29–4.26) a a na
Carer unemployed × three or more carer's in dwelling a a a 6.19 (1.93–19.84)
Log pseudo-likelihood -196.298 -201.777 -199.553 -203.606
Model: Pseudo R 2 15.1% 12.7% 12.7% 11.9%
  1. 1 Significant interaction term in model 1
  2. 2 Significant interaction term in model 2
  3. 3 Significant interaction term in model 3
  4. 4 Significant interaction term in model 4
  5. a Variable dropped during backward stepwise elimination (p > 0.10) or non-significant interaction term na Variable not included in backward stepwise elimination process