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Table 3 Mean annual change and overall difference in continuous risk factor levels by ethnic group stratum, adjusted for age and test year.

From: Comparative levels and time trends in blood pressure, total cholesterol, Body Mass Index and smoking among Caucasian and South-Asian participants of a UK primary-care based cardiovascular risk factor screening programme

  Men Women
  Mean UCI LCI p Mean UCI LCI p
Systolic BP
Model 1a (overall difference between South-Asian and Caucasian group)
Ethnic group difference^ -4.91 -6.23 -3.58 <0.001 -1.77 -3.33 -0.21 0.026
Model 2a (trends by ethnic group)
Caucasian* 0.25 0.19 0.30 <0.001 0.02 -0.04 0.07 0.614
South-Asian* -0.03 -0.46 0.39 0.874 -0.28 -0.79 0.23 0.277
Model 3a (Time trend difference between South-Asian and Caucasian group)
Interaction ethnic group × time** -0.27 -0.71 0.17 0.234 -0.29 -0.82 0.23 0.276
Diastolic BP
Model 1a (overall difference between South-Asian and Caucasian group)
Ethnic group difference^ -2.87 -3.72 -2.02 <0.001 -1.87 -2.82 -0.92 <0.001
Model 2a (trends by ethnic group)
Caucasian* 0.19 0.15 0.22 <0.001 0.08 0.04 0.12 <0.001
South-Asian* 0.18 -0.11 0.46 0.228 -0.13 -0.44 0.17 0.387
Model 3a (Time trend difference between South-Asian and Caucasian group)
Interaction ethnic group × time** -0.22 -0.54 0.11 0.187 -0.22 -0.54 0.11 0.187
Cholesterol
Model 1a (overall difference between South-Asian and Caucasian group)
Ethnic group difference^ -0.04 -0.18 0.10 0.555 -0.24 -0.39 -0.08 0.002
Model 2a (trends by ethnic group)
Caucasian* -0.07 -0.08 -0.06 <0.001 -0.06 -0.07 -0.05 <0.000
South-Asian* -0.08 -0.12 -0.03 0.001 -0.06 -0.10 -0.004 0.033
Model 3a (Time trend difference between South-Asian and Caucasian group)
Interaction ethnic group × time** -0.01 -0.06 0.04 0.763 0.02 -0.04 0.07 0.581
BMI
Model 1a (overall difference between South-Asian and Caucasian group)
Ethnic group difference^ -0.23 -0.59 0.14 0.223 0.78 0.25 1.30 0.004
Model 2a (trends by ethnic group)
Caucasian* 0.10 0.08 0.11 <0.001 0.11 0.09 0.13 <0.001
South-Asian* 0.12 -0.02 0.25 0.083 0.00 -0.16 0.17 0.968
Model 3a (Time trend difference between South-Asian and Caucasian group)
Interaction ethnic group × time** 0.05 -0.07 0.18 0.401 -0.12 -0.29 0.06 0.190
  1. BP: Blood pressure, BMI: Body Mass Index, S-A: South-Asian
  2. ^adjusted for age, year, stratified by ethnic group
  3. *adjusted for age, year and ethnic group
  4. **adjusted for age, test year, ethnic group and interaction term "ethnic group × test year"