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Table 5 Factors associated with knowledge of coronary heart disease – univariate and multivariable analysis

From: Cardiovascular health knowledge and behavior in patient attendants at four tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan – a cause for concern

  N Mean Knowledge Score Unadjusted Coefficient8 (95% CI) p value Adjusted Coefficient8 (95% CI) p value
Age    0.01 (0.001, 0.03) 0.035 0.01 (0.002, 0.03) 0.023
Gender     0.008   0.20
   Female 234 3.54 ref   ref  
   Male 558 3.04 -0.50 (-0.87, -0.13)   -0.22 (-0.56, 0.12)  
Marital Status     0.64   
   Single 202 3.25 ref    
   Married 590 3.16 -0.09 (-0.48, 0.30)   NA*  
Education     <0.001   <0.001
   No Formal 215 1.80 ref   ref  
   Formal Education 577 3.70 1.89 (1.54, 2.25)   1.42 (1.06, 1.77)  
Monthly income     <0.001   <0.001
   <3000 225 1.88 ref   ref  
   >3000 567 3.70 1.82 (1.47, 2.17)   0.76 (0.40, 1.13)  
Residence     <0.001   <0.001
   Rural 335 2.21 ref   ref  
   Urban 457 3.90 1.69 (1.37, 2.01)   1.06 (0.75, 1.37)  
Smoking Status     <0.001   0.09
   Non smoker 478 3.47 ref   ref  
   Smoker 314 2.75 -0.728 (-1.07, -0.39)   -0.27 (-0.57, 0.43)  
Family Hx IHD     <0.001   <0.001
   No 419 2.68 ref   ref  
   Yes 373 3.75 1.07 (0.74, 1.40)   0.61 (0.31, 0.91)  
PMH – Hypertension     <0.001   0.86
   No 674 3.05 ref   ref  
   Yes 118 3.94 0.89 (0.42, 1.36)   0.04 (-0.41, 0.49)  
PMH – Diabetes     <0.001   0.004
   No 745 3.08 ref   ref  
   Yes 47 4.85 1.78 (1.07, 2.48)   0.96 (0.30, 1.61)  
PMH – IHD     0.004   0.28
   No 750 3.13 ref   ref  
   Yes 42 4.21 1.09 (0.34, 1.84)   0.37 (-0.31, 1.05)  
Hospital       
   Mayo 241 2.29 ref   ref  
   AKU 153 3.55 1.25 (0.78, 1.73) <0.001 0.15 (-0.29, 0.59) 0.50
   PIMS 249 3.45 1.16 (0.74, 1.57) <0.001 0.42 (0.03, 0.81) 0.03
   AGH 149 3.81 1.51 (1.03, 1.99) <0.001 1.20 (0.76, 1.64) <0.001
  1. 8coefficient = slope of regression line. Values represent change in knowledge (per unit increase in independent variable or with category change compared to reference category)
  2. CI = confidence interval ‡ for each year increase in age ref = reference category
  3. Hx = history PMH = past medical history IHD = ischemic heart disease
  4. * not in final model † in Rupees (1 Rupee = US$ 0.017)
  5. AKU = Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Mayo = Mayo Hospital, Lahore. PIMS = Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. AGH = Allied General Hospital, Faisalabad.