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Table 4 Risk of eczema vaccinatum (E.V.) and death from primary smallpox vaccinations, Stratified by age and study, 1963–1968

From: Risks of serious complications and death from smallpox vaccination: A systematic review of the United States experience, 1963–1968

Age group and studies Number vaccinated E.V. No. Deaths No. Risk of complication per million (95% C.I.)a Risk of death per million (95% C.I.)a Case fatality risk per hundred (95% C.I.)a
Age <1          
   Neff 1967a 654,000 16 0 24.5 (14.0, 39.7) 0.0 (0.0, 5.6) 0.0 (0.0, 20.6)
   Neff 1967b 31,000 3 0 96.8 (20.0, 283) 0.0 (0.0, 119) 0.0 (0.0, 70.8)
   Lane 1969 614,000 5 0 8.1 (2.6, 19.0) 0.0 (0.0, 6.0) 0.0 (0.0, 52.2)
   Lane 1970 17,000 1 0 58.8 (1.5, 328) 0.0 (0.0, 217) 0.0 (0.0, 97.5)
   Ratner 1970 1 0 0 n/c n/c n/c n/c n/a n/a
   Neff 1972 32 0 0 n/c n/c n/c n/c n/a n/a
   Summary 1,316,033 25 0 19.0 (12.3, 28.0) 0.0 (0.0, 2.8) 0.0 (0.0, 13.7)
Age 1 to 4          
   Neff 1967a 2,973,000 22 0 7.4 (4.6, 11.2) 0.0 (0.0, 1.2) 0.0 (0.0, 15.4)
   Neff 1967b 142,000 9 0 63.4 (29.0, 120) 0.0 (0.0, 26.0) 0.0 (0.0, 33.6)
   Lane 1969 2,733,000 31 0 11.3 (7.7, 16.1) 0.0 (0.0, 1.3) 0.0 (0.0, 11.2)
   Lane 1970 317,000 14 0 44.2 (24.1, 74.1) 0.0 (0.0, 11.6) 0.0 (0.0, 23.2)
   Ratner 1970 68,002 0 0 0.0 (0.0, 54.2) 0.0 (0.0, 54.2) n/a n/a
   Neff 1972 517 0 0 0.0 (0.0, 7110) 0.0 (0.0, 7110) n/a n/a
   Summary 6,233,519 76 0 12.2 (9.6, 15.3) 0.0 (0.0, 0.6) 0.0 (0.0, 4.7)
Age 5 to 19          
   Neff 1967a 2,295,000 15 0 6.5 (3.7, 10.8) 0.0 (0.3, 1.6) 0.0 (0.0, 21.8)
   Neff 1967b 110,000 8 0 72.7 (31.4, 143) 0.0 (0.3, 33.5) 0.0 (0.0, 36.9)
   Lane 1969 1,959,000 14 0 7.1 (3.9, 12.0) 0.0 (0.3, 1.9) 0.0 (0.0, 23.2)
   Lane 1970 229,000 8 0 34.9 (15.1, 68.8) 0.0 (0.3, 16.1) 0.0 (0.0, 36.9)
   Ratner 1970b 193,721 3 0 15.5 (3.2, 45.3) 0.0 (0.3, 19.0) 0.0 (0.0, 70.8)
   Summary 4,786,721 48 0 10.0 (7.4, 13.3) 0.0 (0.0, 0.8) 0.0 (0.0, 7.4)
Age 20 +          
   Neff 1967a 317,000 1 0 3.2 (0.1, 17.6) 0.0 (0.3, 11.6) 0.0 (0.0, 97.5)
   Neff 1967b 15,000 1 0 66.7 (1.7, 371) 0.0 (0.3, 246 0.0 (0.0, 97.5)
   Lane 1969 288,000 7 0 24.3 (9.8, 50.1) 0.0 (0.3, 12.8) 0.0 (0.0, 41.0)
   Lane 1970 33,000 1 0 30.3 (0.8, 169) 0.0 (0.3, 112 0.0 (0.0, 97.5)
   Ratner 1970b 107,822 0 0 0.0 (0.0, 34.2) 0.0 (0.3, 34.2) n/a n/a
   Summary 760,822 10 0 13.1 (6.3, 24.2) 0.0 (0.0, 4.8) 0.0 (0.0, 30.8)
All agesc          
   Neff 1967a 6,239,000 54 0 8.6 (6.5, 11.3) 0.0 (0.0, 0.6) 0.0 (0.0, 6.6)
   Neff 1967b 298,000 24 0 80.5 (51.6, 120) 0.0 (0.0, 12.4) 0.0 (0.0, 14.2)
   Lane 1969 5,594,000 58 0 10.4 (7.9, 13.4) 0.0 (0.0, 0.7) 0.0 (0.0, 6.2)
   Lane 1970 596,000 25 0 41.9 (27.1, 61.9) 0.0 (0.0, 6.2) 0.0 (0.0, 13.7)
   Mellin 1970 109,000 5 0 45.9 (14.9, 107) 0.0 (0.0, 33.8) 0.0 (0.0, 52.2)
   Ratner 1970 369,546 3 0 8.1 (1.7, 23.7) 0.0 (0.0, 10.0) 0.0 (0.0, 70.8)
   Neff 1972 549 0 0 0.0 (0.0, 6697) 0.0 (0.0, 6697) n/a n/a
   Summary 13,206,095 169 0 12.8 (10.9, 14.9) 0.0 (0.0, 0.3) 0.0 (0.0, 2.2)
  1. n/c = not calculated, n/a = not assessable aRisk and confidence intervals not calculated (n/c) for less that 100 vaccinations. Exact confidence intervals based on the binomial distribution. bThe Ratner study age groups, "Age 5 to 14" and "Age 15+", were counted in the Table age groups "Age 5 to 19" and "Age 20+", respectively. cAll ages group includes subjects whose age was unknown
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