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Table 2 Unadjusted, matched odds ratios for the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis among patients with AIDS according to exposure to drinking water sources

From: Endemic cryptosporidiosis and exposure to municipal tap water in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): A case-control study

  Cases (n = 49) Controls (n = 99)   
Variable N (%) N (%) Odds Ratio 95% CI
Tap water at home       
   Never 2 (4) 31 (31) 1.00 Reference
   Sometimes 20 (41) 30 (30) 9.54 2.06, 44.1
   Always 27 (55) 38 (38) 9.78 2.14, 44.7
Tap water outside home       
   Never 29 (59) 81 (82) 1.00 Reference
   Sometimes 4 (8) 8 (8) 2.00 0.53, 7.50
   Always 16 (33) 10 (10) 4.20 1.76, 10.0
Tap water compositea       
   Lowest exposure 2 (4) 29 (29) 1.00 Reference
   Intermediate exposure 35 (71) 64 (65) 7.08 1.59, 31.4
   Highest exposure 12 (24) 6 (6) 24.3 4.21, 139
Bottled water at home       
   Never 25 (51) 38 (38) 1.00 Reference
   Sometimes 24 (49) 40 (40) 0.81 0.37, 1.76
   Always 0 (0) 21 (21) 0.09c 0.03, 0.37
Bottled water outside home       
   Never 17 (35) 36 (36) 1.00 Reference
   Sometimes 10 (20) 20 (20) 0.97 0.28, 3.40
   Always 22 (45) 43 (43) 0.75 0.28, 2.06
Bottled water compositeb       
   Lowest exposure 11 (22) 17 (17) 1.00 Reference
   Intermediate exposure 38 (78) 70 (71) 0.66 0.26, 1.68
   Highest exposure 0 (0) 12 (12) 0.17c 0.06, 0.83
Filtered municipal water       
   Filtered 27 (55) 51 (52) 1.00 Reference
   Mixed 14 (29) 37 (37) 0.75 0.35, 1.58
   Unfiltered 8 (16) 11 (11) 1.36 0.44, 4.16
  1. aLowest = answered never consumed tap water both inside and outside the home; Highest = answered always consumed tap water both inside and outside the home; Intermediate = all other responses bLowest = answered never consumed bottled water both inside and outside the home; Highest = answered always consumed bottled water both inside and outside the home; Intermediate = all other responses cUnmatched, median-unbiased odds ratio estimate and exact 95% confidence intervals calculated directly from the mid-p function based on the hypergeometric model (see methods)