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Table 1 Distributions used in the simulations to estimate the average costs per measles case.

From: The average cost of measles cases and adverse events following vaccination in industrialised countries

Complication Consequence Distribution Mean Minimum Maximum
Uncomplicated measles case
  % cases not seeking medical attention Triangular 22.5 0.0 45.0
Cases not seeing a GP Number of antipyretics bought Exponential 0.2 0.0 1.5
  Number of antitussives bought Tirangular 0.4 0.0 1.0
  Number of working hours missed Uniform 12 6.0 18.0
Cases seeing a GP Number of visits to GP Triangular 1.5 1.0 2.0
  Number of antibiotics bought Uniform 1.0 0.0 2.0
  Number of antipyretics bought Triangular 1.0 0.0 3.0
  Number of antitussives bought Triangular 1.3 0.0 4.0
  Number of working hours missed Uniform 16.0 8.0 24.0
Complicated measles cases      
  % complicated cases Triangular 7.5 4.0 12.5
Hospitalised LoS hospital – all wards Triangular 4.0 2.0 6.0
  LoS Intensive care Unit Uniform 5.7 1 10.4
  % of hospital time spent in intensive care Triangular 6.5 4.0 8.0
Specific costs for hospitalised complicated cases
Otitis media Frequency (per 100) Triangular 3.5 2.0 6.0
  % hospitalised Triangular 0.2 0.05 0.3
  LoS hospital Triangular 1.0 0.5 1.5
Pneumonia and other severe RTI Frequency (per 100) Uniform 4.3 1.0 8.0
  % hospitalised Uniform 15.0 10.0 20.0
  LoS hospital Triangular 7.0 4.0 10.0
Encephalitis Frequency (per 100) Triangular 0.13 0.1 0.2
  % hospitalised Fixed 100.0   
  LoS hospital Triangular 6.0 3.0 9.0
Thrombocytopenia Frequency (per 100) Uniform 2.1 0.4 5.0
  % hospitalised Fixed 100.0   
  LoS hospital Uniform 3.8 2.0 5.6
Convulsions Frequency (per 100) Triangular 0.2 0.1 0.4
  % hospitalised Triangular 20.0 10.0 40.0
  LoS hospital Uniform 2.6 1.0 4.2
SSPE Frequency (per 100,000) Triangular 3.0 2.0 6.0
Long term sequelae following acute encephalitis
  Proportion of cases with extra hospitalisation Uniform 35.0 20.0 50.0
  Proportion of cases with extra consultations with a physician Uniform 15.0 10.0 20.0
  Proportion of cases with chronic treatment for epilepsy Uniform 20.0 10.0 30.0
  Proportion of cases missing school from = week to < 1 month Uniform 12.5 5.0 20.0
  Proportion of cases missing school = 1 month Uniform 6.0 1.0 11.0
  Number of school days missed between 1 week and 1 month Triangular 11.7 5.0 20.0
  Number of school days missed during = 1 month Triangular 37.0 21.0 60.0
  Proportion of cases needing residential care Uniform 5.0 1.0 9.0
Long term sequelae following acute febrile convulsions
  Proportion of cases with extra hospitalisation Uniform 35.0 25.0 45.0
  Proportion of cases with extra consultations with a physician Uniform 20.0 10.0 30.0
  Proportion of cases with chronic treatment for epilepsy Uniform 12.5 8.0 17.0
Variables common to long term sequelae
  Average number of extra hospitalisation per year Triangular 0.33 0.1 0.6
  Average number of extra physician visits per year Triangular 3.0 1.0 6.0