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Spatial occurrence of dengue fever and its relationship with land use in Selangor, Malaysia


Dengue fever has a profound impact in Malaysia, and globally, it has a strong potential to spread to new territories as a consequence of human activities and climate change that modify the environment. Environmental factors can affect the disease epidemic via their influence on vector’s habitat and propagation. Among the economic costs borne in dealing with this matter related to epidemic identification and vector surveillance. The relationship between dengue fever and environmental factors namely land use and degree of urbanisation were investigated in the state of Selangor, Malaysia.

Materials and methods

Spatial analysis of serologically confirmed dengue cases using Global Moran I and Average Nearest Neighbour methods in four districts, namely Hulu Selangor, Klang, Petaling and Sepang was done to show clustering of cases.


The clusterings of cases were statistically significant at differing range of distances. Formation of maps of case location, epidemic location, high risk areas and areas that are affected by nearby land uses were done. The land use maps were for agriculture, stagnant water bodies, housing, industry, open land and drainage in all the four districts and the affected areas were shown as hotspots of dengue cases.


The result of this study is useful for application as a tool to guide health authorities in dengue fever prevention and control activities.

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Correspondence to Haidar Rizal Toha.

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This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Toha, H.R., Hashim, J.H., Sahani, M. et al. Spatial occurrence of dengue fever and its relationship with land use in Selangor, Malaysia. BMC Public Health 14 (Suppl 1), P16 (2014).

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  • Spatial Analysis
  • Health Authority
  • Economic Cost
  • Profound Impact
  • Dengue Fever