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Table 1 Relationships between general characteristics and self-rated health in North Korean defectors

From: Factors associated with self-rated health among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea

  N (%) Mean ± SD Beta t/F P-value
Self-rated health   2.78 ±1.14    
Gender
  Male 101 (20.3) 3.10 ± 1.17   3.21 .001
  Female 397 (79.7) 2.70 ± 1.12    
Age (years)   35.8 ± 8.3 -.306 -7.15 <.001
Marital status
  Single 152 (30.5) 3.05 ± 1.16   8.43 <.001
  Married 199 (40.0) 2.75 ± 1.08    
  Divorced/separated/widowed 146 (29.3) 2.52 ± 1.15    
Size of household
  1 190 (38.2) 2.83 ± 1.16   .66 .512
  ≥2 276 (55.4) 2.76 ± 1.13    
Education in NK
  Elementary school graduate 38 (7.6) 3.34 ± 1.17   6.04 .003
  Secondary school graduate 337 (67.7) 2.69 ± 1.13    
  Some college or higher 123 (24.7) 2.85 ± 1.12    
Religion
  Yes 237 (47.6) 2.63 ± 1.20   2.78 .006
  No 261 (52.4) 2.91 ± 1.07    
Job
  Yes 252 (50.6) 2.98 ± 1.09   -3.98 <.001
  No 220 (44.2) 2.57 ± 1.16    
*ln (annual household income)   16.46 ± .74 .243 4.75 <.001
Health insurance type
  Medical Aid 370 (74.3) 2.63 ± 1.13   -5.47 <.001
  NHI 120 (24.1) 3.27 ± 1.03    
Exile duration
  <5 years 256 (51.4) 2.73 ± 1.15   3.37 .035
  5≤ ~ <10 years 135 (27.1) 2.67 ± 1.07    
  ≥10 years 104 (20.9) 3.03 ± 1.17    
Residence period in SK
  <18 months 243 (48.8) 2.66 ± 1.13   -2.19 .029
  ≥18 months 253 (50.8) 2.89 ± 1.14    
Satisfaction with SK government support 3.78 ± 1.00 .159 3.58 <.001  
Life satisfaction 3.22 ± .89 .183 4.15 <.001  
Traumatic experiences in NK 11.93 ± 3.18 1.171 3.86 <.001  
Traumatic experiences during escape 15.05 ± 2.73 .104 2.33 .020  
Disability
  Yes 36 ( 7.2) 1.94 ± 1.04   4.65 <.001
  No 462 (92.8) 2.84 ± 1.12    
Chronic disease      
  Yes 214 (43.0) 2.00 ± .89   16.4 <.001
  No 284 (57.0) 3.36 ± .95    
Drinking
  None 215 (43.2) 2.60 ± 1.12   4.94 .008
  Once a month or less 127 (25.5) 2.94 ± 1.15    
  Twice a month or more 156 (31.3) 2.78 ± 1.13    
Total 498 (100.0)     
  1. *Natural logarithmic transformation was applied to annual household income (amount of Korean won).
  2. NK, North Korea; SK, South Korea; NHI, National Health Insurance.