Skip to main content

Table 3 Parameter estimates (odds ratio) for multilevel weighted logistic regression models of death on days 2 to 7 and death on days 2 to 28 by PNC type, maternal health factors and socio-demographic controls (n = 31,799) a

From: Postnatal care by provider type and neonatal death in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis

  Deaths in the first week Deaths in the first month
Explanatory variables OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)  
Fixed effects             
Post natal care             
 Visit on first day             
  None 1.00       1.00      
  Unskilled 0.87 (0.55, 1.38)      0.68 (0.48, 0.97) *    
  Skilled 0.77 (0.43, 1.38)      0.79 (0.55, 1.15)     
 Visit within first week             
  None     1.00       1.00   
  Unskilled     0.34 (0.23, 0.52) ***     0.34 (0.30, 0.38) ***
  Skilled     0.40 (0.18, 0.88) *     0.51 (0.35, 0.75) ***
Ever breastfed             
  No 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Yes 0.02 (0.01, 0.04) *** 0.02 (0.01, 0.04) *** 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) *** 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) ***
Delivery characteristics             
 Unskilled at home 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Unskilled in a facility 0.21 (0.10, 0.41) *** 0.28 (0.12, 0.66) ** 0.68 (0.36, 1.29)   0.85 (0.48, 1.50)  
 Skilled at home 0.37 (0.09, 1.53)   0.39 (0.10, 1.54)   0.69 (0.35, 1.36)   0.72 (0.39, 1.35)  
 Skilled in a facility 1.20 (0.68, 2.13)   1.39 (0.76, 2.54)   0.95 (0.67, 1.35)   1.05 (0.72, 1.52)  
Antenatal care             
 Tetanus toxoid before/during pregnancy             
  No 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Yes 0.66 (0.45, 0.95) * 0.71 (0.48, 1.04)   0.63 (0.46, 0.88) ** 0.67 (0.49, 0.93) *
 Antenatal visits             
  < 4 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  ≥ 4 0.58 (0.43, 0.78) *** 0.59 (0.44, 0.79) *** 0.58 (0.45, 0.74) *** 0.58 (0.45, 0.76) ***
Random effects             
 Country-level variance (SE)b 0.80 (0.67, 0.95) * 0.74 (0.63, 0.88) *** 0.74 (0.61, 0.89) ** 0.70 (0.59, 0.82) ***
 Log-likelihood   -1306.96    -1293.25    -1985.77    -1969.57  
 AIC   2631.91    2604.50    3991.53    3959.14  
 Log-likelihood ratio test (Chi-square)c   498.20 ***   490.10 ***   580.31 ***   569.25 ***
  1. Parameters for predictors (fixed effects) are reported as odds ratio; for random effects, the parameter is the variance.
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  3. aFull model including all demographic control variables: age, parity, education, residence (urban/rural), and wealth quintile.
  4. bSignificance of random effects evaluated by comparing model with a similar one in which random effects have been constrained to be zero.
  5. cCompared to null model with no covariate.