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Table 3 Odds ratios of health check attendance in the past 2 years by predisposing, enabling, and need factors

From: Determinants of health check attendance in adults: findings from the cross-sectional German Health Update (GEDA) study

  Men Women
  Age-adjusted OR (95% CI) Multiple-adjusted OR (95% CI) Age-adjusted OR (95% CI) Multiple-adjusted OR (95% CI)
Predisposing factors     
Age     
 35–44 years 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 45–54 years 2.03 (1.75-2.36)*** 1.63 (1.45-1.83)***
 55–64 years 3.21 (2.71-3.80)*** 2.03 (1.78-2.31)***
 65–74 years 3.33 (2.76-4.01)*** 2.54 (2.18-2.96)***
 75+ years 2.52 (1.92-3.30)*** 2.26 (1.82-2.81)***
Socioeconomic status     
 Low 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Medium 1.34 (1.15–1.57)*** 1.22 (1.02-1.45)* 1.42 (1.26–1.61)*** 1.35 (1.16-1.56)***
 High 1.70 (1.44–2.00)*** 1.43 (1.18-1.74)*** 1.56 (1.37–1.79)*** 1.34 (1.14-1.59)***
Marital status     
 Single 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 1.07 (0.87–1.31) 1.08 (0.87-1.35) 1.16 (0.99–1.35) 1.19 (1.00-1.41)
 Married and living together 1.55 (1.32–1.82)*** 1.44 (1.21-1.72)*** 1.26 (1.09–1.45)** 1.17 (1.00-1.36)*
Enabling factors     
Statutory health insurance     
 AOK 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 EK 1.34 (1.18–1.53)*** 1.06 (0.91-1.23) 1.21 (1.09–1.34)*** 1.04 (0.92-1.17)
 BKK 1.26 (1.09–1.47)** 1.09 (0.92-1.29) 1.28 (1.12–1.47)*** 1.25 (1.08-1.45)**
 Other 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 1.00 (0.82-1.23) 1.17 (0.98–1.38) 1.10 (0.91-1.32)
Social support     
 Poor 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Intermediate 1.49 (1.28–1.74)*** 1.33 (1.13-1.58)*** 1.28 (1.13–1.45)*** 1.15 (1.00-1.32)
 Strong 1.73 (1.47–2.04)*** 1.49 (1.24-1.78)*** 1.41 (1.24–1.61)*** 1.24 (1.07-1.43)**
Type of residential area     
 Rural and sparsely populated 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Rural with concentration signs 1.10 (0.92-1.31) 1.17 (0.96-1.42) 1.07 (0.92-1.21) 1.05 (0.89-1.24)
 Urban 1.14 (0.98–1.33) 1.18 (0.99-1.39) 1.15 (1.01–1.30)* 1.13 (0.98-1.30)
 Metropolitan 0.94 (0.80–1.11) 1.09 (0.91-1.30) 1.06 (0.92–1.21) 1.08 (0.93-1.26)
Need factors     
Obesity     
 No 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Yes 1.08 (0.95–1.24) 1.03 (0.88-1.19) 1.02 (0.91–1.15) 1.08 (0.94-1.23)
Physical activity     
 Active 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Slightly active 0.92 (0.81–1.03) 0.87 (0.77-0.99)* 1.01 (0.92–1.11) 0.94 (0.85-1.04)
 Not active at all 0.70 (0.61–0.81)*** 0.79 (0.68-0.93)** 0.70 (0.62–0.79)*** 0.78 (0.69-0.89)***
Smoking     
 Non-smoker 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Smoker 0.68 (0.61–0.76)*** 0.78 (0.68-0.88)*** 0.67 (0.61–0.74)*** 0.77 (0.69-0.85)***
Alcohol consumption     
 Never 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Moderate 1.21 (1.03–1.41)* 1.07 (0.90-1.28) 1.43 (1.28–1.60)*** 1.30 (1.15-1.48)***
 Hazardous 1.12 (0.95–1.33) 1.05 (0.86-1.27) 1.38 (1.21–1.58)*** 1.29 (1.11-1.50)***
Fruit/vegetable consumption     
 Low 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Medium 1.39 (1.23–1.57)*** 1.19 (1.04-1.36)* 1.51 (1.34–1.71)*** 1.39 (1.21-1.59)***
 High 1.69 (1.41–2.01)*** 1.36 (1.12-1.65)** 1.70 (1.48–1.96) *** 1.43 (1.23-1.68)***
Self-rated health     
 Very good/good 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Fair/poor/very poor 0.91 (0.81–1.02) 0.82 (0.71-0.94)** 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 0.94 (0.83-1.05)
Outpatient care use     
 Low 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Medium 2.25 (1.99–2.54)*** 2.26 (1.98-2.58)*** 2.26 (2.03–2.52)*** 2.16 (1.93-2.42)***
 High 2.41 (2.04–2.85)*** 2.86 (2.35-3.47)*** 2.55 (2.22–2.93)*** 2.59 (2.21-3.04)***
  1. *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. OR = odds ratio. CI = confidence interval. Ref. = reference category. AOK = local health insurance funds. EK = alternative health insurance funds. BKK = company health insurance funds.