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Table 3 Odds ratios of health check attendance in the past 2 years by predisposing, enabling, and need factors

From: Determinants of health check attendance in adults: findings from the cross-sectional German Health Update (GEDA) study

 

Men

Women

 

Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)

Multiple-adjusted OR (95% CI)

Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)

Multiple-adjusted OR (95% CI)

Predisposing factors

    

Age

    

 35–44 years

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 45–54 years

2.03 (1.75-2.36)***

1.63 (1.45-1.83)***

 55–64 years

3.21 (2.71-3.80)***

2.03 (1.78-2.31)***

 65–74 years

3.33 (2.76-4.01)***

2.54 (2.18-2.96)***

 75+ years

2.52 (1.92-3.30)***

2.26 (1.82-2.81)***

Socioeconomic status

    

 Low

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Medium

1.34 (1.15–1.57)***

1.22 (1.02-1.45)*

1.42 (1.26–1.61)***

1.35 (1.16-1.56)***

 High

1.70 (1.44–2.00)***

1.43 (1.18-1.74)***

1.56 (1.37–1.79)***

1.34 (1.14-1.59)***

Marital status

    

 Single

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Separated/divorced/widowed

1.07 (0.87–1.31)

1.08 (0.87-1.35)

1.16 (0.99–1.35)

1.19 (1.00-1.41)

 Married and living together

1.55 (1.32–1.82)***

1.44 (1.21-1.72)***

1.26 (1.09–1.45)**

1.17 (1.00-1.36)*

Enabling factors

    

Statutory health insurance

    

 AOK

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 EK

1.34 (1.18–1.53)***

1.06 (0.91-1.23)

1.21 (1.09–1.34)***

1.04 (0.92-1.17)

 BKK

1.26 (1.09–1.47)**

1.09 (0.92-1.29)

1.28 (1.12–1.47)***

1.25 (1.08-1.45)**

 Other

1.11 (0.92–1.33)

1.00 (0.82-1.23)

1.17 (0.98–1.38)

1.10 (0.91-1.32)

Social support

    

 Poor

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Intermediate

1.49 (1.28–1.74)***

1.33 (1.13-1.58)***

1.28 (1.13–1.45)***

1.15 (1.00-1.32)

 Strong

1.73 (1.47–2.04)***

1.49 (1.24-1.78)***

1.41 (1.24–1.61)***

1.24 (1.07-1.43)**

Type of residential area

    

 Rural and sparsely populated

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Rural with concentration signs

1.10 (0.92-1.31)

1.17 (0.96-1.42)

1.07 (0.92-1.21)

1.05 (0.89-1.24)

 Urban

1.14 (0.98–1.33)

1.18 (0.99-1.39)

1.15 (1.01–1.30)*

1.13 (0.98-1.30)

 Metropolitan

0.94 (0.80–1.11)

1.09 (0.91-1.30)

1.06 (0.92–1.21)

1.08 (0.93-1.26)

Need factors

    

Obesity

    

 No

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Yes

1.08 (0.95–1.24)

1.03 (0.88-1.19)

1.02 (0.91–1.15)

1.08 (0.94-1.23)

Physical activity

    

 Active

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Slightly active

0.92 (0.81–1.03)

0.87 (0.77-0.99)*

1.01 (0.92–1.11)

0.94 (0.85-1.04)

 Not active at all

0.70 (0.61–0.81)***

0.79 (0.68-0.93)**

0.70 (0.62–0.79)***

0.78 (0.69-0.89)***

Smoking

    

 Non-smoker

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Smoker

0.68 (0.61–0.76)***

0.78 (0.68-0.88)***

0.67 (0.61–0.74)***

0.77 (0.69-0.85)***

Alcohol consumption

    

 Never

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Moderate

1.21 (1.03–1.41)*

1.07 (0.90-1.28)

1.43 (1.28–1.60)***

1.30 (1.15-1.48)***

 Hazardous

1.12 (0.95–1.33)

1.05 (0.86-1.27)

1.38 (1.21–1.58)***

1.29 (1.11-1.50)***

Fruit/vegetable consumption

    

 Low

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Medium

1.39 (1.23–1.57)***

1.19 (1.04-1.36)*

1.51 (1.34–1.71)***

1.39 (1.21-1.59)***

 High

1.69 (1.41–2.01)***

1.36 (1.12-1.65)**

1.70 (1.48–1.96) ***

1.43 (1.23-1.68)***

Self-rated health

    

 Very good/good

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Fair/poor/very poor

0.91 (0.81–1.02)

0.82 (0.71-0.94)**

1.03 (0.93–1.13)

0.94 (0.83-1.05)

Outpatient care use

    

 Low

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

1.00 (Ref.)

 Medium

2.25 (1.99–2.54)***

2.26 (1.98-2.58)***

2.26 (2.03–2.52)***

2.16 (1.93-2.42)***

 High

2.41 (2.04–2.85)***

2.86 (2.35-3.47)***

2.55 (2.22–2.93)***

2.59 (2.21-3.04)***

  1. *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. OR = odds ratio. CI = confidence interval. Ref. = reference category. AOK = local health insurance funds. EK = alternative health insurance funds. BKK = company health insurance funds.