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Table 2 Change in follow-up variables at 3, 6, and 12 months after the baseline visit among all participants, by study group

From: Leptin and smoking cessation: secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial assessing physical activity as an aid for smoking cessation

  3 months   6 months   12 months  
  Intervention Control p Intervention Control p Intervention Control p
Body weight [Kg] 2.31 (2.72) 2.15 (2.48) 0.665 2.84 (5.99) 3.02 (3.51) 0.822 2.91 (6.66) 3.33 (4.47) 0.633
BMI [kg/m2] 0.8 (0.91) 0.73 (0.89) 0.57 1.01 (1.83) 1.03 (1.21) 0.928 1 (1.98) 1.14 (1.53) 0.624
Body fat [%] 1.76 (4.43) 1.09 (2.13) 0.269 2.53 (5.75) 1.86 (3.19) 0.477 2.49 (5.24) 2.53 (2.95) 0.957
HOMA-IR 0.1 (1.16) 0.04 (1.22) 0.735 0.33 (1.08) 0.24 (1.03) 0.596 0.67 (1.56) 0.78 (1.92) 0.731
Fasting leptin [ug/l] 1.78 (3.79) 2.37 (3.61) 0.273 1.73 (5.77) 3.2 (4.42) 0.08 1.25 (4.86) 3.23 (4.89) 0.014*
Ratio leptin/body fat 0 (0.19) 0.06 (0.1) 0.024* -0.04 (0.23) 0.08 (0.12) 0.001** -0.02 (0.22) 0.07 (0.12) 0.008**
  1. BMI: Body Mass Index; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance.
  2. ¶ p-value, assessed by univariate linear regression analysis.
  3. Values are expressed in means (standard deviation).
  4. * p <0.05;**p <0.01.