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Table 3 The associations between work-related stress and serious health problems in old age by domain

From: Associations between work-related stress in late midlife, educational attainment, and serious health problems in old age: a longitudinal study with over 20 years of follow-up

  Domain with serious health problems (ref. no serious problem in each of the domains respectively)
  Diseases/symptoms Mobility Cognition
WORK-RELATED STRESS Model I
Job Demands (ref. low) a OR (CI 95%)b OR (CI 95%) OR (CI 95%)
Total 1.00 (0.74-1.36) 1.10 (0.73-1.65) 0.69 (0.50-0.95)
Women 1.37 (0.92-2.04) 1.54 (0.85-2.81) 0.77 (0.49-1.22)
Men 0.64 (0.40-1.01) 0.75 (0.42-1.34) 0.56 (0.35-0.88)
Difference women/menc * ns ns
Job Control (linear  d , high values = low control)
Total 1.10 (0.94-1.29) 1.33 (1.09-1.64) 1.36 (1.13-1.64)
Women 1.05 (0.86-1.28) 1.27 (0.95-1.70) 1.27 (0.98-1.64)
Men 1.20 (0.93-1.56) 1.41 (1.06-1.89) 1.47 (1.13-1.92)
Difference women/menc ns ns ns
High job strain e (ref. others) f
Total 1.06 (0.79-1.42) 1.36 (0.92-2.00) 1.22 (0.88-1.69)
Women 1.21 (0.84-1.76) 1.55 (0.92-2.59) 1.28 (0.82-1.98)
Men 0.86 (0.53-1.37) 1.10 (0.59-2.03) 1.08 (0.65-1.78)
Difference women/menc ns ns ns
  Model II
Job Demands (ref. low) a OR (CI 95%)b OR (CI 95%) OR (CI 95%)
Total 1.06 (0.78-1.44) 1.11 (0.74-1.66) 0.74 (0.54-1.03)
Women 1.45 (0.97-2.16) 1.59 (0.88-2.88) 0.88 (0.55-1.41)
Men 0.68 (0.43-1.09) 0.74 (0.42-1.330) 0.60 (0.38-0.95)
Difference women/menc * ns ns
Job Control (linear  d , high values = low control)
Total 0.98 (0.81-1.19) 1.36 (1.08-1.71) 1.23 (1.01-1.50)
Women 0.92 (0.73-1.17) 1.22 (0.88-1.68) 1.15 (0.88-1.50)
Men 1.10 (0.80-1.51) 1.54 (1.11-2.13) 1.32 (0.98-1.77)
Difference women/menc ns ns ns
High job strain e (ref. all others) f
Total 0.97 (0.72-1.30) 1.33 (0.88-1.99) 1.10 (0.79-1.53)
Women 1.12 (0.76-1.64) 1.51 (0.89-2.57) 1.23 (0.79-1.91)
Men 0.77 (0.47-1.26) 1.09 (0.57-2.09) 0.94 (0.56-1.57)
Difference women/menc ns ns ns
  1. Results of binary logistic regressions. All analyses were adjusted for follow-up year and baseline characteristics: age, sex, physical work environment, hours worked during previous year, mental health, mobility, and an index based on all diseases and symptoms that were used to create the outcome. Model II was adjusted for all these factors and for level of education. The analyses were conducted separately for women and men. Results in bold: p value <0.05. aFor women, the reference category was women with low job demands. For men, the reference category was men with low job demands. bAbbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ns nonsignificant. cP value for how the association between work-related stress and health problems differs between men and women; e.g., the interaction between sex and job demands: *p < 0.05, ns = p ≥ 0.05. dIn linear representation, the ORs indicate the change in odds of each higher category of the independent variable. Job control has four categories. eHigh job strain: control was dichotomized into low and medium low vs. high and medium high. High strain = high demands and low control. fFor women, the reference category was women who did not have high job strain; i.e., who had passive (low demands/low control), active (high demands/high control), or low strain (low demands/high control) jobs. For men, the reference category was men who did not have high job strain, i.e., who had passive, active, or low strain jobs.