Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of papers included that report theoretical studies and literature reviews

From: The impact of the natural environment on the promotion of active living: An integrative systematic review

AUTHORS NUMBER OF INCLUDED PAPERS STUDY DESIGN EXPERIENCE OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT TYPE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (PA) SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Bedimo-Rung et al. (2005) [5] Not reported Theoretical paper based on existing literature. Availability and perception of urban parks and other NEs Park-based activities A conceptual model based on an analysis of literature depicts how park features, condition, access, aesthetic, safety and policy might enhance or undermine physical activity levels and public health.
Bowler et al. (2010) [10] 24 papers Systematic review of literature with meta-analysis. Assessment of quality not reported Experiences in various NEs, including laboratory and outdoor settings Various, including laboratory-based experimental trials Exposure to the NE whilst engaging in PA is associated with greater health benefits than PA alone, especially for what concerns psychological outputs (e.g. positive emotions and indicators of mental health). Benefits of PA in contact with nature on indicators of physical health, such as blood pressure and cortisol production, remain somehow inconclusive.
Gelter (2000) [12] Not reported Theoretical paper based on existing literature. Experiences in the wilderness. Friluftsliv (traditional Scandinavian outdoor recreations) Friluftsliv is analysed in relationship with its socio-historical background and underlying physiological mechanisms. Implications for environmental and PA education are discussed.
Gladwell et al. (2013) [14] Not reported Theoretical paper based on existing literature. Contribution of the NE to PA and health. General PA, active living. The impact of the NE for human health, including possible motivational mechanisms that may encourage PA, is discussed.
Kaczynski & Henderson (2007) [8] 50 papers Systematic review of literature. Assessment of quality not reported Availability of parks. General PA, including neighbourhood-based PA and active transport, among others Availability of NEs was generally associated with more PA and health within the community. Parks, trails, and other open spaces had some of the most consistent relationships with PA, when compared with indoor recreation facilities and sport centres.
Lee & Maheswaran (2011) [9] 35 papers Systematic review of literature. Assessment of quality was performed and reported. Availability of NEs, prevalently urban green spaces General PA, including neighbourhood-based PA and active transport, among others There are evidences of a positive association between availability of NEs and health via PA. Anyway, the relationship between access to NEs, PA and health is likely to be complex, and yet remain controversial. Methodological challenges and quality of the available studies in this field are discussed.
Thompson Coon et al. (2011) [11] 11 papers Systematic review of Literature. Assessment of quality performed and reported. PA experiences in various settings, including laboratory and outdoor settings Various, including laboratory-based experimental trials. Compared with PA indoors, PA in NE had greater effects on indicators of mental health and well-being. Methodological challenges and quality of the available studies in this field are discussed.