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Table 5 Absolute change in mean values of weight, height and BMI of boys and girls aged 6–9 years from COSI Round 1 (2007/2008) to COSI Round 2 (2009/2010), by age and country

From: WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6–9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010

Age group and country Weight(kg) Height*(cm) BMI#(kg/m2)
  Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
6-year-olds§ NS NS P < 0.01 P < 0.0001 P < 0.05 P < 0.01
 BEL - 0.2°°°° - 0.1°°°° - 0.2°°° - 0.2°°°° - 0.1°°°° 0
 SVN - 0.1 - 0.2 + 0.4° + 0.6°° - 0.2°° - 0.3°°°
7-year-olds§ P < 0.05 P < 0.01 P < 0.001 P = 0.0001 P < 0.01 P < 0.05
 BEL - 0.1 - 0.4°°°° - 0.3°° - 0.6°°°° 0 - 0.1
 CZE + 0.2 + 0.4 - 0.2 - 0.2 + 0.1 + 0.3
 IRL - 0.7°° - 0.9°° - 1.0°°° - 1.0°°° - 0.2 - 0.3°
 LVA + 0.2 + 0.2 + 0.2 - 0.1 0 + 0.1
 LTU 0 0 + 0.3 0 - 0.1 0
 PRT - 0.4 + 0.1 + 0.5 + 0.4 - 0.4°° 0
 SVN - 0.4° - 0.3 0 0 - 0.2°° - 0.2°
8-year-olds§ P < 0.0001 P < 0.05 NS P < 0.05 P < 0.0001 P < 0.05
 BEL - 0.1° - 0.1° - 0.1° - 0.1° 0 0
 ITA - 0.6°°°° - 0.1 + 0.1 + 0.3° - 0.4°°°° - 0.1
 NOR + 0.6°° + 0.4 - 0.1 0 + 0.3°°° + 0.2°
 SVN + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.2 + 0.1 + 0.1
9-year-olds§ NS NS P < 0.05 P < 0.05 P < 0.01 NS
 BEL - 0.3°° - 0.4°°° - 0.4°°°° - 0.4°°° 0 - 0.1°°
 ITA - 0.5° - 0.5° + 0.1 + 0.1 - 0.3°° - 0.3°°
  1. Abbreviations: ANOVA analysis of variance, BMI body mass index, COSI Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative, BMI/A BMI-for-age, H/A height-for-age, NS not significant, W/A weight-for-age.
  2. The country codes refer to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3166–1 Alpha-3 country codes and countries were listed in alphabetical order by their full names: BEL, Belgium (Flanders); CZE, Czech Republic; IRL, Ireland; ITA, Italy; LVA, Latvia; LTU, Lithuania; NOR, Norway; PRT, Portugal (all regions except Madeira); SVN, Slovenia.
  3. Body weight was adjusted for clothes worn when measured and children with a W/A Z-score < −6 or > +5 were excluded.
  4. *Children with a H/A Z-score < −6 or > +6 were excluded.
  5. #Body weight was adjusted for clothes worn when measured and children with a BMI/A Z-score < −5 or > +5 were excluded.
  6. §Significance level of the two-way ANOVA to assess the interaction effect of country and round on the change in mean values for the indicated age-sex group.
  7. °Statistically significant difference of mean values between the two rounds for the indicated age-sex group (unpaired t-test (equal variance) or unpaired Welch’s t-test (unequal variance); P < 0.05).
  8. °°Statistically significant difference of mean values between the two rounds for the indicated age-sex group (unpaired t-test (equal variance) or unpaired Welch’s t-test (unequal variance); P < 0.01).
  9. °°°Statistically significant difference of mean values between the two rounds for the indicated age-sex group (unpaired t-test (equal variance) or unpaired Welch’s t-test (unequal variance); P ≤ 0.001).
  10. °°°°Statistically significant difference of mean values between the two rounds for the indicated age-sex group (unpaired t-test (equal variance) or unpaired Welch’s t-test (unequal variance); P ≤ 0.0001).