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Table 3 Summary of studies: focus, design, sample, delivery agent, quality assessment, and outcome

From: The impact of interventions to prevent obesity or improve obesity related behaviours in children (0–5 years) from socioeconomically disadvantaged and/or indigenous families: a systematic review

Study/Target group/Aim Focus/outcome measures Design N Age at start Delivery agent Follow up Quality Outcome
BF PFP Diet PA SB Anthro Theory based1
Home Based (n = 12)               
Edwards et al. (2013), low income young black mothers [36] Delay solids       RCT 248 Antenatally Doulas Birth, 6 weeks, 4 m Low +BF, +solids
1° Aim: Increase BF and delay early introduction of solids
Black et al. (2001), USA, low income black adoescents [46]   Delay solids      RCT 181 Birth Trained mentors 3 &12 m Moderate +solids
1° Aim: Delay early introduction of solids
Wen et al. (2012), Australia, first time mothers disadvantaged Community [37]   RCT 667 Antenatally Nurses 6,12 & 24 m High + BF, +PFP, +Diet, -PA, +SB, +Anthro
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
Scheinmann et al. (2010), USA, low income Latino mothers [47] Delay solids       Quasi-experimental 439 Infant < 5 months Video only 3 & 6 m Moderate +solids
-BF
1° Aim: Delay early introduction of solids
De Oliveira et al. (2012), Brazil, low income adolescent mothers [38] Delay solids      RCT 323 Birth MD team 1,2,3,4,5 & 6 m Moderate +BF, +solids
+ diet
1° Aim: Delay early introduction of solids
Vitola et al. (2012), Brazil, low income mothers [39]     RCT 500 Birth Trained field workers 6,12 m, 3–4 & 7–8 years Moderate +BF
+diet
1° Aim: Improve child diet -anthro
Johnson et al. (1993), UK, low income area [40]       RCT 262 <=4 months Trained volunteers 12 m & 7 years Moderate +Diet
+PFP
1° Aim: Improved child development/diet
Fitzpatrick et al. (1997), UK, travelling mothers [35]       Prospective with non equivalent comparison 39 <=4 months Trained volunteers 12 m Low +Diet
+PFP
1° Aim: Improved child development/diet
Watt et al. (2009), UK, low income mothers [41]    RCT 312 10 weeks age Trained volunteers 12, 18 m & 4 years High -BF, -solids
+diet, +PFP,
1° Aim: Improve PFP and child diet -anthro
Harvey-Berino (2003), USA, Native American Toddlers/Pre-school children [49]    RCT 43 9 months to 3 years Indigenous peer educators 4 m Low +PFP, -anthro, +diet, -PA
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
Karanja et al. (2010), USA, American Indian/      Simulated before and after design 205 Antenatally Community health workers 2 years Low ?BF, diet NR,
-anthro
Native Alaskan [48]
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
Haines et al. (2013), USA, low income racial minority families with preschool children [50]     RCT 121 2 to 5 years Bi-lingual health educators 6 m Moderate +anthro
+ sleep, +SB,
-family meals, -TV in bedroom
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
Primary Health Care (n = 6)               
Kavanagh et al. (2008), USA, low income WIC attendees [53]       RCT 61 3- 10 weeks Unclear 4 m Low -formula feeding,
1° Aim: Improve formula feeding practices and reduce rapid weight gain -anthro
Kahn et al. (2007), USA, predominantly low income Hispanic WIC attendees [54]       RCT 48 18-30 months Nutritionist 2 m Low +bottle weaning
1° Aim: Bottle weaning
Klohe-Lehman et al. (2007), USA, low income WIC attendees [57]     Before and after 235 1-3 years Dietitian 2& 6 m Low +diet, +PA
-anthro
1° Aim: Improve diet and PA of mothers and children
Davison et al. (2011), USA, WIC attendees aged 2–5 years [56]       Quasi-experimental 880 2-5 years WIC clinic staff 1 year Low +SB, +PA
1° Aim: Increase child PA and reduce SB
McGarvey et al. (2004), WIC attendees 2–4 years [55]    Quasi-experimental 336 2-4 years WIC nutritionist 1 year Low +PFP
1° Aim: Improve child diet and PA, reduce SB
French et al. (2012), USA, low income families [51]     Cluster RCT 292 <2 months age Primary care staff 12 m Moderate + diet, -PFPs
+ SB, -anthro
1° Aim: Improve PFP and child diet
Preschool (n = 7)               
Niederer et al. (2012), Switzerland, Preschools with high migrant population [59]    Cluster RCT 652 (213 parents with low education) 5-6 years Health educators and preschool teachers 1 year High -anthro, diet NR, PA NR, SB NR
1° Aim: Improve aerobic fitness and obesity prevention
Jouret et al. (2009), France, Preschools [58]     Cluster RCT 79 kindergartens, 1663 children 2.5-5 years Dietitian and education aide 2 years Moderate +Anthro
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
Fitzgibbon et al. (2005), USA, Black preschool children [62]    Cluster RCT 12 preschools, 409 children 3-5 years Trained child educators 2 years Moderate +Anthro -diet,
-PA
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
Fitzgibbon et al. (2006), USA, Latino preschool children [63]    Cluster RCT 12 preschools, 3-5 years Trained child educators 2 years Moderate -anthro, -diet,
401 -PA, -SB
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
Fitzgibbon et al. (2011), USA, Black preschool children [64]    Cluster RCT 18 preschools, 618 children 3-5 years Classroom teachers 14 weeks Low +PA, +SB, -diet, -anthro
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
Fitzgibbon et al. (2013), USA Latino preschool children and their families [61]    Cluster RCT 4 preschools, 146 children 3-5 years Bilingual educators 1 year Low -anthro, -diet,
-PA, -SB
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
Winter et al. (2013), USA, low income Latino preschool children [66]    Quasi-experimental 4 preschools, 405 children 3-5 years Teachers, Promotoras 6 m Low -anthro, +PA
1° Aim: Obesity prevention and school readiness
Community setting (n=7)               
Horodynski et al. (2004), USA, rural low income carers 1–3 year olds [68]        Quasi-experimental 38 1-3 years Trained paraprofessional 6 m Moderate -diet
1° Aim: Improve child diet
Horodynski et al. (2005), USA low income families with toddlers [69]       Quasi-experimental 135 11-25 months Peer educator 6 m Low -PFP
1° Aim: Improve child diet
Davison et al. (2013), USA, Head start attendees, 2-5 years [67]    Before and After 154 2-5 years Trained facilitators 6 m Low +diet, +PA,
+SB, +anthro
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
O’Dwyer et al. (2012), UK, Sure Start attendees, 3–5 years [70]      Cluster RCT 77 families, 79 children 3-4.9 years Researcher 10 weeks Moderate +PA
Play professionals +SB
1° Aim: Improve child PA and reduce SB
Barkin et al. (2012), USA, Latino-American Preschool aged children [71]    RCT 106 2-6 years Trained facilitator 3 m Moderate +anthro
1° Aim: Obesity prevention
Slusser et al. (2012), USA low income Latino parents with 2–4 year olds [73]     RCT 160 2-4 years Bilingual social worker 1 year Moderate +anthro
1° Aim: Obesity Prevention
Bender et al. (2013), USA, low income Mexican parents with 3–5 year olds [72]     Before and after 33 3-5 years Promotoras 15 m Low +diet, -anthro
1° Aim: Improve child diet and maternal PA
  1. BF: breastfeeding, PFP: Parental feeding practices, PA: physical activity, SB: sedentary behaviour, Anthro: anthropometrics, : Primary, 1theoretical basis of the intervention reported. Low quality: two or more weak ratings; moderate quality: less than four strong and one weak rating, high quality: four strong and no weak ratings, outcomes: +: significant effect, -: no significant effect, NR: not reported.