Skip to main content

Table 4 Non-adjusted analysis and analysis adjusted by the Poisson regression model of the factors associated with prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits among São Luís schoolchildren (2004/05)

From: Factors associated with prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits in two cohorts of Brazilian children

Variables PNNSH PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI)
   n (wtd%) (Non-adjusted) (Model 1) (Model 2)
Maternal age
<20 41 20.34 0.98(0.70-1.37) 1.04(0.69-1.55) 1.17(0.79-1.73)
20-34 88 20.79 1.00 1.00 1.00
≥35 3 11.09 0.53(0.18-1.58) 0.43(0.17-1.12) 0.35(0.10-1.23)
Maternal schooling (years of study)
≥ 12 2 16.98 1.00 1.00 1.00
9-11 57 22.02 1.30(0.36-4.64) 1.39(0.42-4.58) 1.79(0.55-5.87)
5 to 8 55 19.02 1.12(0.31-4.01) 1.23(0.37-4.08) 1.60(0.48-5.33)
≤ 4 18 19.57 1.15(0.31-4.31) 1.25(0.36-4.31) 2.15(0.60-7.69)
Maternal marital status
Married 33 15.78 1.00 1.00 1.00
Consensual union 64 21.62 1.37(0.93-2.02) 1.45(0.98-2.16) 1.62(1.07-2.44)
No companion 35 23.21 1.47(0.95-2.28) 1.36(0.87-2.13) 1.61(0.93-2.43)
Maternal smoking during pregnancy
Non-smoker 128 20.32 1.00 1.00 1.00
Smoker 4 17.71 0.87(0.36-2.13) 0.98(0.40-2.41) 1.32(0.51-3.41)
Maternal work outside the home      
No 95 18.18 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 37 27.93 1.54(1.10-2.14) 1.63(1.14-2.33) 1.51(1.03-2.22)
Parity (number of children)
5 or more 6 20.10 1.08(0.51-2.28) 1.42(0.70-2.86) 1.03(0.39-2.70)
2 to 4 58 18.58 1.00 1.00 1.00
1 68 21.90 1.18(0.86-1.62) 1.06(0.73-1.53) 0.99(0.68-1.43)
Preterm birth
No 111 19.59 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 21 25.05 1.28(0.84-1.95) 1.23(0.78-1.93) 1.47(0.98-2.21)
Low birth weight
No 115 20.07 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 17 22.20 1.10(0.70-1.75) 0.99(0.60-1.63) 0.92(0.57-1.48)
Child’ sex
Male 57 17.21 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 75 23.36 1.36(0.99-1.86) 1.40(1.02-1.91) 1.47(1.06-2.02)
Current occupation of the family head
Non-manual 19 23.47 1.00   1.00
Skilled Manual 43 20.79 0.89(0.54-1.44)   0.78(0.48-1.27)
Unskilled manual 70 19.47 0.83(0.53-1.30)   0.67(0.42-1.09)
Duration of breast feeding (months)
< 6 74 27.55 1.00   1.00
6-11 44 17.41 0.63(0.45-0.89)   0.66(0.47-0.95)
≥ 12 11 9.90 0.36(0.20-0.66)   0.31(0.17-0.59)
Duration of bottle feeding (months)
< 12 48 13.09 1.00   1.00
12-23 34 25.96 1.98(1.33-2.96)   1.96(1.28-2.98)
≥ 24 40 36.56 2.79(1.93-4.03)   2.49(1.70-3.63)
  1. n = Number of participants. Significant values are in bold.
  2. PNNSH (wtd%) = Prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits (weighted prevalence).
  3. PR (95% CI) = Weighted estimate of the prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) – non-adjusted model.
  4. PR (95% CI) (Model 1) = Weighted Poisson regression model adjusted for birth variables.
  5. PR (95% CI) (Model 2) = Weighted Poisson regression model adjusted for birth and school age variables.