Skip to main content

Table 3 Non-adjusted analysis and analysis adjusted by the Poisson regression model of the factors associated with prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits among Ribeirão Preto schoolchildren (2004/05)

From: Factors associated with prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits in two cohorts of Brazilian children

Variables PNNSH PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI)
  n (wtd%) (Non-adjusted) (Model 1) (Model 2)
Maternal age
<20 259 51.75 1.10(0.90-1.35) 1.12(0.88-1.43) 1.15(0.93-1.44)
20-34 45 46.84 1.00 1.00 1.00
≥35 68 47.49 1.01(0.79-1.30) 0.97(0.74-1.27) 1.19(0.93-1.53)
Maternal schooling (years of study)
≥ 12 43 49.38 1.00 1.00 1.00
9-11 77 46.35 0.94(0.71-1.25) 0.96(0,71-1.30) 0.95(0.69-1.30)
5 to 8 147 48.90 0.99(0.77-1.28) 1.00(0.75-1.33) 0.96(0.70-1.35)
≤ 4 70 44.54 0.90(0.67-1.21) 0.91(0.66-1.27) 0.90(0.62-1.32)
Maternal marital status
Married 225 46.59 1.00 1.00 1.00
Consensual union 71 45.28 0.97(0.79-1.20) 0.96(0.75-1.22) 0.99(0.78-1.26)
No companion 54 51.08 1.10(0.87-1.38) 1.07(0.83-1.38) 1.04(0.81-1.33)
Maternal smoking during pregnancy    
Non-smoker 267 45.38 1.00 1.00 1.00
Smoker 84 53.51 1.18(0.98-1.42) 1.20(0.98-1.46) 1.13(0.93-1.36)
Maternal work outside the home    
No 211 45.90 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 141 48.89 1.06(0.90-1.26) 1.10(0.91-1.33) 1.05(0.87-1.27)
Parity (number of children)
5 or more 24 51.57 1.12(0.81-1.55) 1.04(0.70-1.55) 1.12(0.79-1.60)
2 to 4 189 46.16 1.00 1.00 1.00
1 154 48.16 1.04(0.88-1.23) 0.93(0.76-1.13) 0.89(0.74-1.08)
Preterm birth
No 276 46.94 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 96 52.16 1.11(0.94-1.32) 1.06(0.86-1.29) 0.90(0.74-1.10)
Low birth weight
No 282 46.81 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 90 54.52 1.16(0.99-1.38) 1.03(0.84-1.27) 1.05(0.86-1.30)
Child’ sex      
Male 176 44.33 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 196 50.91 1.15(0.98-1.35) 1.24(1.04-1.47) 1.27(1.08-1.51)
Current occupation of the family head
Non-manual 67 46.15 1.00   1.00
Skilled manual 142 48.17 1.04(0.83-1.31)   1.13(0.87-1.47)
Unskilled manual 162 48.17 1.04(0.84-1.30)   1.13(0.85-1.50)
Duration of breast-feeding (months)    
< 6 205 56.33 1.00   1.00
6-11 112 49.79 0.88(0.75-1.05)   0.91(0.76-1.09)
≥ 12 41 26.04 0.46(0.34-0.62)   0.53(0.37-0.74)
Duration of bottle feeding (months)
< 12 44 23.63 1.00   1.00
12-23 44 34.42 1.46(0.99-2.14)   1.30(0.86-1.97)
≥ 24 262 60.53 2.56(1.90-3.45)   2.24(1.60-3.14)
  1. n = Number of participants. Significant values are in bold.
  2. PNNSH (wtd%) = Prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits (weighted prevalence).
  3. PR (95% CI) = Weighted estimate of the prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) – non-adjusted model.
  4. PR (95% CI) (Model 1) = Weighted Poisson regression model adjusted for birth variables.
  5. PR (95% CI) (Model 2) = Weighted Poisson regression model adjusted for birth and school age variables.