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Table 3 Risk factors associated with antibodies a against Toxoplasma gondii among participants ≥6 years old by country of birth; NHANES 1999–2004, 2009-10 b

From: Drinking water source and human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

Variable US-born Foreign-born
  N IgG positivec Unadjusted ORd Adjusted ORd N IgG positivec Unadjusted ORd Adjusted ORd
   n (%) (95% CI) (95% CI)   n (%) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Survey year         
 1999-2000 4010 320 (9.7) Ref Ref 1078 282 (32.3) Ref Ref
 2001-2002 4699 276 (7.4) 0.7 (0.5-1.1) 0.7 (0.5-1.1) 1052 251 (21.8) 0.6 (0.4-0.9) e 0.6 (0.4-0.9)
 2003-2004 4248 231 (7.9) 0.8 (0.5-1.2) 0.8 (0.5-1.2) 872 203 (28.0) 0.8 (0.5-1.3) 0.8 (0.6-1.1)
 2009-2010 5401 574 (10.3) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 0.6 (0.4-0.7) 1664 505 (27.6) 0.8 (0.6-1.2) 0.7 (0.5-0.9)
Age         
Continuous (years) 18358 1401 (8.9) 1.03 (1.03-1.04) 1.04 (1.03-1.04) 4666 1241 (27.5) 1.02 (1.01-1.02) 1.03 (1.02-1.04)
Gender         
 Female 9481 652 (8.2) Ref Ref 2307 588 (26.7) Ref Ref
 Male 8877 749 (9.6) 1.2 (1.002-1.4) 1.2 (1.05-1.5) 2359 653 (28.2) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 1.1 (0.9-1.4)
Race/Ethnicity         
 Non-Hispanic White 8131 756 (9.2) Ref Ref 415 98 (22.8) Ref Ref
 Non-Hispanic Black 5104 419 (10.0) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 430 147 (38.3) 2.1 (1.4-3.1) 1.9 (1.3-2.9)
 Mexican American 3773 140 (3.8) 0.4 (0.3-0.5) 0.5 (0.4-0.7) 2666 609 (23.9) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 0.9 (0.7-1.2)
 Other Hispanic 727 37 (4.3) 0.4 (0.3-0.8) 0.5 (0.3-0.98) 760 329 (44.1) 2.7 (2.0-3.6) 2.3 (1.7-3.0)
 Other, incl. multiracial 623 49 (10.8) 1.2 (0.8-1.8) 1.5 (1.0-2.3) 395 59 (15.4) 0.6 (0.4-0.9) 0.5 (0.4-0.8)
Household food securityf         
 Full food security 12523 942 (8.7) Ref Ref 2581 651 (25.0) Ref Ref
 Marginally secure or insecure 5246 414 (9.3) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 1.3 (1.01-1.6) 1962 559 (33.1) 1.5 (1.2-1.8) 1.2 (1.0-1.5)
Renting vs. owning home         
 Owned/being bought 10861 877 (9.3) Ref -- 1956 459 (23.7) Ref Ref
 Rented/other arrangement 7332 498 (8.0) 0.9 (0.7-1.0) -- 2666 769 (30.7) 1.4 (1.2-1.7) 1.3 (1.1-1.6)
Smoking statusf,g         
 Non-smoker 14427 933 (7.7) Ref Ref 4005 1044 (27.3) Ref --
 Light smoker/2nd hand exposure 1082 105 (9.3) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 305 89 (29.4) 1.1 (0.8-1.6) --
 Smoker 2717 351 (12.9) 1.8 (1.5-2.1) 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 329 96 (26.7) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) --
Water sourcef         
 Home-treatedh water company 3267 194 (6.9) Ref Ref 861 226 (26.2) Ref Ref
 Home-untreated water company 12608 922 (8.7) 1.3 (1.05-1.6) 1.2 (1.01-1.5) 3476 933 (28.3) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 1.0 (0.7-1.3)
 Home-treated well water 990 131 (12.4) 1.9 (1.4-2.6) 1.6 (1.2-2.1) 66 12 (19.4) 0.7 (0.3-1.8) 0.5 (0.2-1.0)
 Home-untreated well water 1016 119 (12.0) 1.8 (1.3-2.7) 1.7 (1.1-2.4) 91 24 (19.8) 0.7 (0.4-1.3) 0.8 (0.4-1.4)
General health conditionf         
 Excellent 5456 293 (6.8) Ref Ref 885 184 (21.8) Ref Ref
 Very good 5372 365 (8.0) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.0 (0.8-1.3) 932 223 (24.2) 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 1.1 (0.8-1.5)
 Good 5360 450 (9.8) 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 1728 470 (28.5) 1.4 (1.1-1.8) 1.2 (0.9-1.6)
 Fair/poor 2164 292 (14.9) 2.4 (1.9-3.0) 1.5 (1.1-1.9) 1116 363 (36.1) 2.0 (1.6-2.6) 1.6 (1.2-2.2)
Took treatment for anemia in past 3 mosf         
 No 17859 1334 (8.7) Ref -- 4533 1192 (27.3) Ref Ref
 Yes 493 65 (14.8) 1.8 (1.3-2.6) -- 131 48 (40.4) 1.8 (1.1-3.1) 1.8 (1.1-3.0)
Blood eosinophils number (1000 cells/uL)f         
 Normal (<0.35) 15960 1239 (8.9) Ref -- 4061 1040 (26.4) Ref Ref
 Above normal (≥0.35) 2441 158 (8.6) 1.0 (0.8-1.2) -- 573 192 (35.1) 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 1.5 (1.2-1.8)
Percentage of lifetime lived in USf         
 ≥0.76 -- -- -- -- 1147 206 (18.3) Ref Ref
 0.61-0.75 -- -- -- -- 1044 295 (29.7) 1.9 (1.4-2.5) 1.9 (1.4-2.5)
 0.41-0.60 -- -- -- -- 1149 337 (29.5) 1.9 (1.4-2.4) 2.2 (1.6-2.8)
 ≤0.40 -- -- -- -- 1175 364 (32.5) 2.2 (1.7-2.7) 2.5 (1.9-3.4)
  1. aFor Continuous NHANES 1999–2004: IgG ≥10 IU = positive; IgG <10 IU = negative. For Continuous NHANES 2009–2010: IgG ≥33 IU/mL = positive; IgG <33 IU/mL = negative. b T. gondii serology performed only among participants ages 6–49 for Continuous NHANES 1999–2004 data. cAll prevalence estimates were weighted. dWald Chi-square logistic regression used. eBolded font denotes statistically significant data (P < 0.05). fCovariate has some missing data. gBased on serum cotinine level (ng/mL); nonsmoker <10, light smoker/second-hand exposure 10–99, smoker ≥100. hTypes of home water treatment devices included: Brita® or other pitcher water filter, ceramic or charcoal filter, water softener, aerator, reverse osmosis.